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An Actual Survey of the County of Sussex divided into Rapes Hundreds and Deanryes. In which the exact longitude and latitude of all the remarkable places are determined from observation. Also an accurate delineation by admeasurement of the sea-coast, roads and the rivers so far as navigable, by Richard Budgen, published 1723

Observations on the coasts of Hampshire, Sussex, and Kent, relative chiefly to picturesque beauty: made in the summer of the year 1774, by William Gilpin, published 1804 (136 pp., London: T. Cadell and W. Davies)   View Online

A Coast Companion to Rye-Winchelsea-Hastings-St. Leonards-East-Bourne-Brighton-Worthing-and Bognor … Embellished with two maps, by Francis Coghlan, published c.1830 (76 pp., London: H. Hughes) accessible at: British Library

An Historical and Descriptive Account of the Coast of Sussex - Brighton, Eastbourne, Hastings, St. Leonards, Rye . Forming also a guide to all the Watering Places, by John Docwra Parry and engraved by R. Martin, published 1833 (435 pp., Brighton: Wright & Son) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 48][Lib 17333] & The Keep [LIB/504860] & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries   View Online

Journal of an Excursion round the South-Eastern Coast of England, by Baker Peter Smith, published 1834 (London: Gilbert & Rivington)

Climate: Medical Review of the Southern Coast of England generally, and of Sussex in particular, by William King, Esq., M.D., published 1835 in The History, Antiquities and Topography of the County of Sussex (appendix no. I, pp.1-4) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 2397][Lib 3212] & The Keep [LIB/507380][Lib/500088] & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

Bradshaw's descriptive guide to the London & Brighton Railway: containing a full and accurate account of all the various places and objects of interest along the line, together with their historical and general associations, and a compendious topographical description of all the admired places of resort in the vicinity of Brighton , by E. L. Blanchard and George Bradshaw, published 1844 (London: W. J. Adams)

Adams's Descriptive Guide to the Watering Places of England; and complete companion to the coast, &c., by E. L. Blanchard, published 1848 (125 pp., London: W. J. Adams) accessible at: & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

On the Newer Tertiary Deposits of the Sussex Coast, by R. Godwin-Austen, published January 1856 in Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society (vol. 12, issue 1-2, article, pp.4-6)   View Online
From Brighton, westwards, between the chalk-hills and the sea, the surface of the country is formed, first, by a raised terrace of "red gravels," lying on the sloping base of the chalk-hills, and on the old tertiary deposits; secondly, the gravels of the Chichester levels, or the "white gravels." These latter are distinctly bedded and seamed with sand, and are more water-worn than the red gravels which pass under them; thirdly, the white gravels are overlaid by "brick-earth," which is somewhat variable in its characters. These, with their equivalents, are the Glacial deposits of the district in question.

On some geological features of the country between the South Downs and the Sussex Coast, by P.J. Martin, published January 1856 in Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society (vol. 12, issue 1-2, article, pp.134-137)   View Online
The object of this paper is not so much to give a minute description of the district I am about to review, as to promote a discussion amongst the members of the Society here present on some of its phænomena, which seem to be singularly illustrative of the superficial changes that have been effected in the south of England by dynamic forces of comparatively modern date.
The district is to be found in the ninth section of the Ordnance Map, and extends from near Portsmouth to Shoreham, or that flat country which is to be seen from any part of the tops of the South Downs from Portsdown Hill eastward to the Shoreham River.

On the newer Tertiary deposits of the Sussex coast, by R. Godwin-Austen, published January 1857 in Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society (vol. 13, no. 1-2, article, pp.40-72)   View Online
It was only a very short time since, and that, too, in the most advanced treatises on systematic geology, that certain superficial accumulations of every European district were grouped together, as belonging to "the diluvial period." Recent investigations are now beginning to assure us of the great amount of physical change which is referable to that period, and also that it was not transitory, nor convulsive, as it has been frequently represented. Already it is separable into stages and subdivisions, whereby the lapse of time is becoming clearly marked out.
The knowledge we possess of the history of these later changes is as yet a very imperfect one, and it is not perhaps too much to assert, that, of all geological periods, that which comes nearest to our own times is the one which is the least understood. If the accumulations themselves in these regions are wanting in those vertical dimensions which speak directly to the eye as to the vast duration of the older palæozoic, secondary, and tertiary periods, the very fact of great physical changes having taken place during comparatively much shorter periods of time is in itself a consideration which renders the earth's recent history even more strange than its remoter one.

A Guide to the South Coast of England: From Reculvers to the Land's End, and from Cape Cornwall to the Devon Foreland, by Mackenzie Walcott, published 1859 (London: Edward Stanford) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries

The Defence of Sussex and the South Coast of England from Invasion, considered by Queen Elizabeth's Privy Councillors, AD 1596, by W. H. Blaauw, M.A., F.S.A., published 1859 in Sussex Archæological Collections (vol. 11, article, pp.147-170) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 2096] & The Keep [LIB/500230] & S.A.S. library   View Online

On the Pleistocene Sea-bed of the Sussex Coast, being the Western Extension of the Raised Sea-beach of Brighton, by Joseph Prestwich, published January 1859 in Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society (vol. 15, issue 1-2, article, p.86)   View Online

John Taylor, the "Water Poet's" Adventures on the Sussex Coast, by Unknown Author(s), published 1866 in Sussex Archæological Collections (vol. 18, article, pp.137-140) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 2103] & The Keep [LIB/500237] & S.A.S. library   View Online

A Survey of the Coast of Sussex: Made in 1587, With a view to its defence against Foreign Invasion, and especially against the Spanish Armada, edited by Mark Antony Lower, M.A., published 1870 (7 pp. + 11 plates, Lewes: W. E. Baxter) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 3596][Lib 3307] & The Keep [LIB/504733] & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

A Guide to the Coast of Sussex, by Mackenzie E. C. Walcott, published 1871 (London)

On the Cliff-sections of the Tertiary beds West of Dieppe in Normandy, and at Newhaven in Sussex, by William Whitaker, published January 1871 in Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society (vol. 27, issue 1-2, article, pp.263-268)   View Online
The notes from which this paper is made were taken in the summer of 1886. The two sections described are interesting as showing the spread of beds that, but for them, would be thought to occur only in the south-eastern part of the London Basin; and I believe that no detailed description of the French one has been published, whilst the English one has been enlarged since the time of its latest description.

On the Chalk of the Cliffs from Seaford to Eastbourne, Sussex, by William Whitaker, published May 1871 in Geological Magazine (vol. 8, issue 83, article, pp.198-200)   View Online
Just out of Seaford the Chalk rises sharply from beneath the sand of the Woolwich Beds, on an outlier of which the small town is buUt. The dip however soon lessens, until the Chalk is flat, with slight waves. Some of the layers of flint are continuous, and some nearly so, but most are not continuous, and they are rather closer together in the lower part of the cliff. There are a few thin beds of hard chalk, and at the top a capping of "clay-with-flints."

A Ramble on the Coast of Sussex in 1782, by Antony Highmore and edited by Charles Hindley, published 1873 (London: Reeves & Turner) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries   View Online

The Erosion of the Sussex Coast, with special reference to Great Storms which have visited the County, by F. E. Sawyer, published 1873 in Proceedings of the Brighton and Sussex Natural History Society (article, pp.129-)

Shipping and Coast Scenes and Antiquities of Sussex, by R. H. Nibbs, published 1876 (Brighton: Nibbs)

The Measurements of Ptolemy and of the Antonine Itinerary, Applied to the Southern Counties of England, by Gordon M. Hills, published September 1878 in Journal of the British Archaeological Association (first series, vol 34, issue 3, article, pp.271-320)   View Online

On Ptolemy's Measurements of the South Coast, by Henry Bradley, published September 1881 in Journal of the British Archaeological Association (first series, vol 37, issue 3, article, pp.269-278)   View Online

Brighton beaches after the storms of October 15 and December 8, 1886, by W.G. Black, published 1887 in Transactions of the Edinburgh Geological Society (vol. 5, no. 3, article, pp.399-406)

The Pleistocene deposits of the Sussex coast, and their equivalents in other districts, by Clement Reid, published January 1892 in Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society (vol. 48, issue 1-4, article, pp.344-364)   View Online
The geological survey of the district lying between the South Downs and the Sussex coast has been completed, but the time needed for finishing and engraving the maps will make it impossible to publish a memoir for several years to come. It seems advisable, therefore, to bring before this Society an outline of the general results obtained, especially as certain of these results may seriously modify our views as to the succession of the deposits, and also as to the climatic changes in late Tertiary times in the South of England. A previous communication, published in this Journal, dealt with the question of the origin of the Coombe Rock and of dry Chalk valleys; I now propose to continue this work by showing the relation of the Coombe Rock to the various Pleistocene strata which occupy the plain lying between the southern edge of the Downs and the sea. I propose also to indicate briefly the probable correlation of these strata with the glacial deposits of other parts of England.

The Corn Supply of the South Coast in British and Roman Times, by Rev. Frederick Henry Arnold, published 1894 in Sussex Archæological Collections (vol. 39, article, pp.154-160) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 2124] & The Keep [LIB/500257] & S.A.S. library   View Online

Naval Engagement off the Coast of Sussex in 1350, by C. L. Prince, published 1894 in Sussex Archæological Collections (vol. 39, notes & queries, pp.218-219) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 2124] & The Keep [LIB/500257] & S.A.S. library   View Online

The Raised Beach and Rubble-Drift at Aldrington, between Hove and Portslade-by-Sea, Sussex. With notes on the microzoa, by Frederick Chapman, A.L.S., F.R.M.S., published 1899 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (no. 16 issue 5, article, pp.259-270)   View Online

On the Geologic Conditions affecting the Coasts of England and Wales, with special reference to the Coast-line from Lynn to Wells (Norfolk) and from Yarmouth to Eastbourne (Suffolk, Essex, Kent, and Sussex), by William Whitaker, published February 1909 in Geological Magazine (vol. 6, issue 2, article, pp.49-56)   View Online
In reprinting this article some slight chages and corrections have been made, but it remains substantially the same, perhaps with trifling improvements. [Any notable addition is included in brackets of this kind.]

On the Geologic Conditions affecting the Coasts of England and Wales, with special reference to the Coast-line from Lynn to Wells (Norfolk) and from Yarmouth to Eastbourne (Suffolk, Essex, Kent, and Sussex), by William Whitaker, published March 1909 in Geological Magazine (vol. 6, issue 3, article, pp.113-119)   View Online
Having now given a short account of the geology of the long line of coast from Yarmouth to Eastbourne, one may say of the first part of it, north of the Thames, that it is, so to speak, most favourably constructed for coast-erosion. Without a single hard or firm rock, such as the Chalk; without anything that can form a nearly perpendicular cliff of any height, no cliff indeed being high enough to give rise to a respectable landslip; composed of loose sand and gravels, loams and clays (the last partly strengthened by thin layers of soft stone), there is really nothing to withstand either the assaults of atmospheric action from above or of the sea below. Such parts as are of special interest or have been subject to special observation will now be noticed.

Chapter X. The Chalk cliffs of Kent and Sussex, and the tertiary beds of Herne Bay, by George William Young, F.G.S., published 1910 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (vol. 1-20, P2, article, pp.256-269)   View Online

Chapter XI. The tertiary and post-tertiary deposits of the Sussex coast, by J. V. Elsden, B.Sc., F.G.S., published 1910 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (vol. 1-20, P2, article, pp.270-276)   View Online

The Sussex Coast Line, by Adolphus Ballard, B.A., LL.B., M.A., published 1910 in Sussex Archæological Collections (vol. 53, article, pp.5-25) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 2138] & The Keep [LIB/500271] & S.A.S. library   View Online

The Sussex Coast, illustrated by Edith Brand Hannah, by Ian C. Hannah, M.A., published 1912 (London: T. Fisher Unwin) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 12417][Lib 74] & The Keep [LIB/500117] & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries   View Online

The mouth of the River Cuckmere, by Vera K. Isaac, published 1915 in Geographical Teacher (article, pp.192-194)

The Cinque ports and their coastline, by E. Marjorie Ward, published 1916 in Geographical Teacher (vol. 8, no. 5, article, pp.306-311)

Seaward Sussex: The South Downs from End to End, by Edric Holmes, published 1920 (315 pp., London: Robert Scott) accessible at: & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries   View Online

The Evolution of the Hastings Coastline, by E. M. Ward, published August 1920 in The Geographical Journal (vol. 56, no. 2, article, pp.107-120)   View Online

The Evolution of the Hastings Coastline: Discussion, by J. S. Owens, J. W. Evans, Mr. Hinks and E. M. ward, published August 1920 in The Geographical Journal (vol. 56, no. 2, article, pp.120-123)   View Online

The Geology of the Eastbourne - Hastings Coastline: With Special Reference to the Localities visited by the Association in June, 1925. Weald Research Committee Report No. 3, by H. B. Milner, M.A., D.I.C., F.G.S. and A. J. Bull, M.Sc., F.G.S., published 1925 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (no. 36 issue 3, article, pp.291-316)   View Online
The following pages present in outline the geology of the coast-section exposed from Beachy Head to Cliff End, beyond Fairlight, a distance of 26 miles. One of us (A.J.B.) is responsible for the survey from Beachy Head to Rockhouse Bank, the other (H.B. M.) from Rockhouse Bank eastward to Cliff End. The work forms part of the six-inch geological survey of the Weald being under taken by members of the Weald Research Committee of the Geologists' Association.
The authors wish to point out that they do not here include the inland geology of the districts traversed, except in so far as exigencies of building or similar circumstances necessitate a detour for a few hundred yards inland to preserve continuity of geological description. For this reason much that is generally known to be of unusual interest in the region, especially in the vicinity of Hastings and S1. Leonards, finds no mention here, the object being rather to draw attention to this exceptionally fine coast-section, wherein is displayed such varied stratigraphy and tectonics, and also to render it possible for casual visitor or more serious student to explore it with some guide to the trend and sequence of geological events.
The description of the coast is arranged from west (Beachy Head) to east (Cliff End); but so as to enable those who desire to pick up the thread at any particular place, insets in the text indicating localities have been employed, from which a start can be made at will.
This section of coast has on it the towns of Eastbourne, Bexhill, St. Leonards and Hastings, while smaller residential and holiday resorts are springing up at Fairlight and Cooden, and even in unpromising places on the edge of the marsh-land.

Old Roads from the Sussex Coast , by H. E. Malden, published February 1926 in Sussex Notes & Queries (vol. I no. 1, article, pp.7-10) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 8950] & The Keep [LIB/500203] & S.A.S. library

Old Roads from the Sussex Coast , by L. F. Salzman, F.S.A., published May 1926 in Sussex Notes & Queries (vol. I no. 2, article, pp.33-34) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 8950] & The Keep [LIB/500203] & S.A.S. library

The Queer Case of Captain Codling: A true story of the Sussex Coast, by Arthur Beckett, published 1927 in Sussex County Magazine (vol. I no. 2, article, pp.58-65) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 2303][Lib 8326] & The Keep [LIB/500137]

Recent Finds Off the Sussex Coast , by E. Cecil Curwen, published May 1927 in Sussex Notes & Queries (vol. I no. 6, note, p.190) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 8950] & The Keep [LIB/500203] & S.A.S. library

Famous South Coast Pleasure Resorts Past & Present, their historical associations, their rise to fame and a forecast of their future development, by Harold Clunn, published 1929 (T. Whittingham) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries

The West Sussex Coast and Downs. Report of the Arundel, Littlehampton, East Preston and District Joint Town Planning Advisory Committee, by Arthur H. Schofield, published 1929 (Arundel: Mitchell & Co.) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 3239][Lib 6951][Lib 14175] & West Sussex Libraries
Report of the Arundel, Littlehampton, E Preston & District Joint Town Planning Advisors Committee

Herring Investigations at Plymouth. VI. Winter Herrings Caught off the Sussex Coast and in the Great West Bay during the Years 1924 to 1927, by E. Ford, published May 1929 in Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (vol. 16. no. 1, article, p.25, ISSN: 0025-3154)   View Online
As explained in Part I of this series of Reports (Ford, 1, p. 238) it was thought that the study of herrings landed at other ports would provide information bearing upon the question of the origin and migrations of the shoals visiting Plymouth during the winter. The examination of the appreciable number of such samples obtained, however, has yielded results which are of interest in themselves, apart from their application to the question of the Plymouth fishery. In this paper, an account is given of the study of herrings landed at Hastings and Brighton from off the Sussex coast, and at Brixham from the Great West Bay. It is necessary to point out that the sampling was not specifically designed for such a study, so that due allowance for this fact must be made in drawing conclusions as to the progress of the local fisheries.

The Roman Road from Selsfield to the Coast, by F. Bentham Stevens, F.S.A., published May 1929 in Sussex Notes & Queries (vol. II no. 6, article, pp.167-170) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 8951] & The Keep [LIB/500204] & S.A.S. library

The Sussex Coast and Edward III's wars, by Rev. E. H. Rudkin, M.A., B.D., rector of Ninfield, published 1930 in Sussex County Magazine (vol. IV no. 2, article, pp.115-119) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 2308][Lib 2309] & The Keep [LIB/500172]

Sussex from the Air. 6 - The Sussex Coast, by E. Cecil Curwen, M.A., F.S.A., published 1930 in Sussex County Magazine (vol. IV no. 11, article, pp.948-955) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 2308][Lib 2309] & The Keep [LIB/500173]

The Sussex Coast and Edward III's wars, by Rev. E. H. Rudkin, M.A., B.D., rector of Ninfield, published 1931 (reprinted from the Sussex County Magazine, 20 pp., Eastbourne: T. R. Beckett) accessible at: The Keep [LIB/506126] & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries
Review in Sussex Notes and Queries, August 1931.:
This little pamphlet which first appeared in the Sussex County Magazine, has been republished by the author, the Rector of Ninfield, as a contribution to the history of the Hundred of Ninfield and the neighbouring part of the Sussex Coast. Any study of a special point is always valuable and we hope that the writer will be rewarded for his patient research.

Physical Controls in the Historical Geography of the Sussex Ports, by F. G. Morris, 1931 at University of London (M.A. thesis)

Notes on the Geology of Felpham, near Bognor Regis, by Edmond M. Venables, published 1931 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (no. 42 issue 4, article, pp.363-369) accessible at: University of Sussex Library   View Online
The area dealt with in this paper is included in Sheet 332 of the Geological Survey, taking in about I½ miles of the Sussex coast at Bognor Regis, Felpham, and Middleton. This area, with the surrounding country, has been described by Mr. Clement Reid. Dixon's account of the district is scanty, although not without interest; but, apart from these papers, little appears to have been written about the area. Topley's map in Dixon's "Geology of Sussex" is of considerable interest in connection with this paper, as will be shown in due course.

When Brighton was at Bognor Regis, by Thos. F. Allen, published 1931 in Sussex County Magazine (vol. V no. 7, article, pp.499-500) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 2310] & The Keep [LIB/500174]

Newhaven and Seaford: a study in the diversion of a river mouth, by F. G. Morris, published March 1931 in Geography (vol. 16, no. 1, article, pp.28-33, Geographical Association)   View Online

Chalk zones in the foreshore between Worthing and Felpham, Sussex, by E. C. Martin, B.Sc., A.I.C., published 1932 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (no. 43 issue 3, article, pp.201-211)   View Online
This paper deals with a stretch of about 14 miles of the Sussex coast, betwe en East Worthing and Felpham. A modern shingle bank, backed in places by a low cliff of brickearth, extends along the whole length of this coast and slopes down to a foreshore varying in width, at low-water spring tides, from about 300 yards to nearly half a mile. The upper part of the foreshore consists generally of sand, but in the lower part beds of broken Chalk are seen at frequent intervals and, in places, extend almost up to the shingle bank.
Nearly a century ago Sir Woodbine Parish recorded that "in front of the village of Felpham, chalk is exposed for a considerable distance cropping out of the sands between high and low water mark, and at low water it may be traced for upwards of a mile in the direction of Middleton. It abounds in its characteristic fossils." (Some of these he recorded, but the list unfortunately was not published.) Parish also noted that "chalk marl has long been dug out of the beach near Middleton at low tides for manuring the neighbouring beds."
Later geologists appear to have given little attention to these foreshore exposures, and no attempt to zone them seems to ha ve been made. They are briefly referred to by Dixon, H. B. Woodward, and by Clement Reid, who wrote "it is difficult to say to what zones this Chalk belongs, or whether zones older than the Upper Chalk may not be exposed on the foreshore towards Worthing." Mr. R. M. Brydone, however, in one of his papers on the zone of Offaster pilula, suggested that this zone "is probably exposed on the coast in West Sussex in the foreshore near Bognar."

Bird-Life on the Sussex Coast, by E. W. Hendy, published 1932 in Sussex County Magazine (vol. VI no. 10, article, pp.627-628) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 9325] & The Keep [LIB/500175]

The ?One Hundred Foot' raised beach between Arundel and Chichester, Sussex, by Joseph Fowler, published January 1932 in Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society (vol. 88, issue 1-4, article, pp.84-99)   View Online
Prestwich, as long ago as 1859, described the raised beach between Arundel and Chichester under the title of 'The Westward extension of the old Raised Beach of Brighton'. Clement Reid, referring to the same deposits, writes, 'The work of the survey having thoroughly corroborated Prof. Prestwich?s view that these deposits all belong to one period, [the italics are my own] there will be no occasion here to discuss the question' (Reid, 1892, p. 346). As a result of the general acceptance of this view of the continuity between the Brighton and Chichester deposits, it has been inferred that the underlying solid formations were not elevated horizontally, but with a considerable eastward lag; for the beach at the Brighton end is only some 15 feet above sea-level, while that at the Chichester end is 115 feet higher, though the distance between the two places is less than 30 miles. I do not know, however, of any indication of such differential movement, and it is far more likely that there are two distinct raised beaches here in Sussex, the one at about 15 feet, and the other at about 100 feet above existing sea-level.

Sussex Wool Ports in the Thirteenth Century. 2 - Shoreham, by R. A. Pelham, M.A., Ph.D., published February 1935 in Sussex Notes & Queries (vol. V no. 5, article, pp.137-141) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 2204][Lib 8223][Lib 8862] & The Keep [LIB/500207] & S.A.S. library

A Mirage and the Sussex Coast in 1837, by Laurence F. Field, published August 1935 in Sussex Notes & Queries (vol. V no. 7, note, p.221) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 2204][Lib 8223][Lib 8862] & The Keep [LIB/500207] & S.A.S. library

The Stratigraphy of the Chalk of Sussex: Part I. West Central area - Arun Gap to Valley of the Adur, with zonal map, by Christopher T. A. Gaster, F.G.S., published 1937 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (no. 48 issue 4, article, pp.356-373)   View Online
In this paper are recorded the results of a Survey of the Chalk of the portion of the Sussex Downs that extends from the Valley of the Adur to the Arun Gap, a distance of 13½ miles.This is intended to be the fIrst part of a comprehensive Survey of the Chalk of Sussex, between Eastbourne and the Hampshire boundary, a work on which the author has been engaged for many years. The area dealt with is included in the western portion of Sheet 318 (Brighton) and the eastern part of Sheet 317 (Chichester) of the Geological Survey. These sheets show in distinct colours the three major divisions of Lower, Middle and Upper Chalk, with lines indicating the position of the Melbourn Rock, and the Chalk Rock. In the present work more detailed results are indicated by the accompanying zonal map.

The Sussex Coast in 1698, by S.N.Q. contributor, published August 1937 in Sussex Notes & Queries (vol. VI no. 7, note, pp.220-221) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 12537][Lib 8863][Lib 8224] & The Keep [LIB/500208] & S.A.S. library

Cruising Around the Sussex Coast: Romantic Gateways into England, by Arthur Lamsley, published 1938 in Sussex County Magazine (vol. XII no. 4, article, pp.226-230; no. 5, pp.304-307; no. 6, pp.372-375) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 2317] & The Keep [LIB/500183]

The Sussex Coast in 1698, by Edward Yates, published May 1938 in Sussex Notes & Queries (vol. VII no. 2, note, p.58) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 12536][Lib 8864][Lib 2206] & The Keep [LIB/500209] & S.A.S. library

The Stratigraphy of the Chalk of Sussex. Part II. Eastern Area - Seaford to Cuckmere Valley and Eastbourne, with Zonal Map, by Christopher T. A. Gaster, F.G.S., published 1939 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (no. 50 issue 4, article, pp.510-526)   View Online
This paper, which forms the second part of a comprehensive survey of the Chalk of Sussex, records the results of a survey of the Chalk extending from Seaford to the Cuckmere Valley and Eastbourne, a distance of 7 miles. The width of the outcrop from the escarpment on the north to the chalk cliffs on the coast being approximately five miles. The area dealt with is included in parts of Sheets 334 (Eastbourne) and 319 (Lewes) of the Geological Survey. The three major divisions of Lower, Middle and Upper Chalk shown on those sheets are replaced in the present work by detailed zonal results which are shown on the accompanying map.

The geomorphology of the rivers of the Southern Weald: Weald Research Committee Communication No. 28, by J. F. Kirkaldy, M.Sc., F.G.S. and A. J. Bull, Ph.D., F.G.S., published 1940 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (no. 51 issue 2, article, pp.115-150)   View Online
In a recent communication one of the authors dealt with the evidence of periods of 'still-stand' shown by the bevelled spurs of the South Downs. The present paper is an attempt to extend the investigation over a wider area and through a greater period of geological time. It is hoped that by combining the evidence of the Downland spurs with that of the drainage plan, longitudinal profiles and drift deposits of the rivers Cuckmere, Ouse, Adur and Rother-Arun and the raised beaches and infilled valleys of the Coastal Plain of Sussex, a clearer picture than hitherto available of the events of the later stages of geological time in the Southern Weald will be obtained.

Sussex Porst in 1204, by W. B. [W. Budgen], published February 1941 in Sussex Notes & Queries (vol. VIII no. 5, note, pp.153-154) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 8865][Lib 2207] & The Keep [LIB/500210] & S.A.S. library

The Stratigraphy of the Chalk of Sussex: Part III. Western Area. Arun Gap to the Hampshire Boundary, with zonal map, by Christopher T. A. Gaster, F.G.S., published 1944 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (no. 55 issue 3, article, pp.173-188)   View Online
This paper comprises the third part of an extensive survey of the Chalk of Sussex. It records the result of a survey of the Chalk in the area extending from the Arun Gap to the Hampshire boundary, a distance of 16½ miles. The width of the outcrop from the main escarpment on the north to the Coastal Plain on the south ranges from 4 to 7 miles.
The area dealt with is included in parts of Sheets 316 (Fareham) and 317 (Chichester) of the Geological Survey. The three major divisions of Lower, Middle and Upper Chalk shown on those Sheets are replaced in the present work by detailed zonal results as recorded on the accompanying Map (Pl. 9). Reference to the Survey Memoirs indicate that research on the Chalk of this part of the county has been scanty. This is probably due to the many large estates and tracts of woodland covering the Downs, and to the limited means of access in the past to this purely rural area.

Winter on the Sussex Coast. A complete guide to Bexhill, Bognor, Brighton, Eastbourne, Hastings, Hove, Littlehampton, Seaford, Worthing. Illustrated with photographs, maps and original lino-cuts by John Acton, published 1947 (116 pp., Brighton: Crabtree Press) accessible at: British Library

A Regional Study of Urban Development in Coastal Sussex since the Eighteenth Century, by H. C. Brookfield, 1950 at University of London (Ph.D. thesis)

A Geographic Study of Roads through the Sussex-Surrey Weald to the Coast, 1700-1900, by Gwendolen J. Fuller, 1950 at University of London (Ph.D. thesis)

The Stratigraphy of the chalk of Sussex: Part IV. East central area - between the valley of the Adur and Seaford, with zonal map, by Christopher T. A. Gaster, F.G.S., published 1951 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (no. 62 issue 1, article, pp.31-64)   View Online
The paper records the results of a zonal survey of the Chalk in the area between the valley of the Adur and Seaford. It reveals some new and interesting facts relating to the geological structure of the area. For instance, the previously described anticline of Kingston near Lewes is found to comprise three folds, i.e. (a) Kingston Anticline, (b) Hollinghury Anticline, and (c) Beddingham Anticline. The Kingston Anticline is limited to the area between Mount Caburn and Newmarket Plantation. Faulting is associated with these folds. The Beddingham Anticline extends eastward beyond the district. Other folding, both synclinal and anticlinal, with faulting, are also described. The form of the outstanding valley, known as the Coombe, East of Lewes, is explained. The results are supported by considerable field evidence.

The Possible Encroachment in 1509, by G. D. Johnston, published August 1951 in Sussex Notes & Queries (vol. XIII no. 7, article, pp.153-156) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 8231] & The Keep [LIB/500215] & S.A.S. library

Winter on the Sussex Coast: a complete guide to the winter attractions of the sunshine towns and..., published 1953 accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 7426]

Old Shore Lines near Camber Castle, by H. Lovegrove, published 1953 (Geographical Journal) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries

Old Shore Lines near Camber Castle, by Captain H. Lovegrove, published June 1953 in The Geographical Journal (vol. 119, no. 2, article, pp.200-207)   View Online

Winter on the Sussex Coast: a complete guide to the winter attractions of the sunshine towns and villages on the coast of Sussex, published 1954 accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 6759]

The Customs Ports of Sussex, 1680-1730, by John H. Andrews, M.A. (Cantab.), published May 1954 in Sussex Notes & Queries (vol. XIV nos. 1 & 2, article, pp.1-3) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 8232][Lib 2213] & The Keep [LIB/500216] & S.A.S. library

Agriculture: The Sussex Coastlands, by Sarah Crisp, published 1958 (pamphlet, Brighton: Manpower Services Commission) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 10042] & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

The Coastal Marshland of East Sussex between the 17th and mid-19th Centuries, by D. W. Gramolt, 1961 at University of London (M.A. thesis)

The Selsey coast protection scheme, by J. Duvivier, published 1961 in Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers (vol. 20, no. 4, article, pp.481-506)
Subsequent discussion was reported in vol. 23, no. 1, 1962, pages 121-142.

Movement of shingle on the margins of Seaford Bay, by I. P. Jolliffe, published 1964 (Hydraulics Research Station)

The low-level Pleistocene marine sands and gravels of the West Sussex Coastal Plain, by J. M. Hodgson, published 1964 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (no. 75 issue 4, article, pp.547-561)   View Online
The nature, origin and relationships of low-level Pleistocene marine sands and gravel, together with a map of their distribution compiled during a soil survey of the West Sussex Coastal Plain, are described and discussed.
There has been considerable solution of the underlying wave-cut platform where it cuts across the Chalk. This solution, which post-dates the beach, gives a variation in platform height independent of its original slope.
The wave-cut platform rises from about six feet O.D. to at least eighteen and a half feet O.D., and probably several feet higher, and the deposits, which are widespread and continuous except over the Chalk, rise to an observed maximum of forty-seven feet O.D. There is no evidence for the separate existence of more than one deposit within these altitudinal limits. The beach is considered to be the westward continuation of the similar beach at Black Rock, Brighton.

The stability of cliffs composed of soft rocks with particular reference to the coasts of South East England, by J. N. Hutchinson, 1966 at Cambridge University (Ph.D. thesis)

Soils of the West Sussex Coastal Plain, by John Michael Hodgson, published 1967 (Bulletin no. 3 of the Soil Survey of Great Britain (England and Wales), viii + 148 pp., Harpenden [Herts.]: Rothamsted Experimental Station) accessible at: British Library & West Sussex Libraries

An Analysis of Intra-Urban Retail and Service Activity in the Sussex Coast Conurbation. , by P. J. Ambrose, 1968 at Sussex University (Ph.D. thesis)

Coast Erosion and the Port of Pende, by H. C. P. Smail, published May 1969 in Sussex Notes & Queries (vol. XVII no. 3, article, pp.93-99) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 8235] & The Keep [LIB/500219] & S.A.S. library

Parry's The Coast of Sussex, published 1970 (J. D. Parry) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 12513]

South Sussex Walk, by Lord Teviot and Michael B Quinion, published 1970 (pamphlet, BBC Radio Brighton) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 13813] & West Sussex Libraries

The Retreat of Chalk Cliffs, by V.J. May, published June 1971 in The Geographical Journal (vol. 137, no. 2, article, pp.203-206)   View Online
Case study of Birling Gap.

Coastal changes, beach nourishment and sea defences, with special reference to the coastline of Sussex and Kent, by Ivan Phillips Joliffe, 1972 at University of London (Ph.D. thesis)

South Coast of England (Companion Guides), by John Seymour, published 1 June 1975 (271 pp., HarperCollins Distribution Services, ISBN-10: 0002196301 & ISBN-13: 9780002196307) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

The Roman Forts of the Saxon Shore, by Stephen Johnson, published 1976 (xi + 172 pp., London: Paul Elek) accessible at: & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

The Tertiary deposits at Newhaven, Sussex, by D.A. Bone, published 1976 in Tertiary Research (vol. 1, no. 2, article, pp.47-49)

Behind Seven Sisters - the Sussex heritage coast, by J. N. P. Watson, published 4 November 1976 in Country Life (vol. 160 no. 4140, article, pp.1274-1276)

The Sound of Maroons: Story of Life Saving Services on the Kent and Sussex Coasts, by Howard Biggs, published November 1977 (176 pp., Lewisham: Terence Dalton, ISBN-10: 0900963832 & ISBN-13: 9780900963834) accessible at: British Library & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

A Gazetteer of Roman Sites and Finds on the West Sussex Coastal Plain, by Mike W. Pitts, published 1979 in Sussex Archæological Collections (vol. 117, article, pp.63-84) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 7497] & The Keep [LIB/500312] & S.A.S. library

Some Recent Finds of Iron Age Pottery on the West Sussex Coastal Plain, by Mike W. Pitts, published 1979 in Sussex Archæological Collections (vol. 117, shorter notice, pp.259-260) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 7497] & The Keep [LIB/500312] & S.A.S. library

The World of the Changing Coastline, by Jill Eddison, published 18 June 1979 (144 pp., Faber and Faber, ISBN-10: 0571113761 & ISBN-13: 9780571113767)

The Roman Forts of the Saxon Shore, by Stephen Johnson, published 21 June 1979 (2nd edition, 164 pp., London: Paul Elek, ISBN-10: 0236401653 & ISBN-13: 9780236401659) accessible at: East Sussex Libraries

Sussex by the Sea, The Development of Seaside Resorts 1730-1900, by Sue Farrant, published November 1979 (offprint, Brighton Polytechnic) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 7314] & The Keep [LIB/502376] & West Sussex Libraries

Early Film Makers of the South Coast, published 1980 (pamphlet, Chichester District Museum) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 13311]

A Gazetteer of Mesolithic Finds on the West Sussex Coastal Plain, by Mike W. Pitts, published 1980 in Sussex Archæological Collections (vol. 118, article, pp.153-162) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 7805] & The Keep [LIB/500305] & S.A.S. library

Beachy Head cave, by T. Reeve, published 1981 in Caves and Caving (vol. 12, article, pp.2-5)

Fields of History on the Sussex Coastal Plain, by R. W. Standing, published May 1981 in West Sussex History, the Journal of West Sussex Archives Society (no. 19, article, p.1) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 16404/19] & The Keep [LIB/500480]

Sussex Coastal Plain Project, by Owen Bedwin, published August 1981 in Sussex Archæological Society Newsletter (no. 34, article, p.241, ISSN: 0307-2568) accessible at: S.A.S. library   Download PDF

Coastal resource use and management in England and Wales : with special reference to East Sussex., by Nigel Frank Simons, 1982 at Royal Holloway, University of London (Ph.D. thesis)

The English Seaside Resort: a social history, by J. Walton, published 1983 (xii + 265 pp., Leicester University Press, ISBN-10: 0718512170 & ISBN-13: 9780718512170) accessible at: East Sussex Libraries

The Development of Prehistoric Settlement on the West Sussex Coastal Plain, by Owen Bedwin, published 1983 in Sussex Archæological Collections (vol. 121, article, pp.31-44) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 8902] & The Keep [LIB/500308] & S.A.S. library

The Sussex Coast, Past and Present, by D. A. Robinson and R. B. G. Williams, published 1 September 1983 in Sussex Environment Landscape and Society (chapter 3, pp.50-66, Stroud: Sutton Publishing Ltd., ISBN-10: 0862990459 & ISBN-13: 9780862990459) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 8831] & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries   Download PDF

The Early Growth of the Seaside Resorts, c 1750 to 1840, by Sue Farrant, published 1 September 1983 in Sussex Environment Landscape and Society (pp.208-220, Stroud: Sutton Publishing Ltd., ISBN-10: 0862990459 & ISBN-13: 9780862990459) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 8831] & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

Resorts, Ports and "Sleepy Hollows": Sussex Towns, 1840-1940, by John Lowerson, published 1 September 1983 in Sussex Environment Landscape and Society (pp.221-234, Stroud: Sutton Publishing Ltd., ISBN-10: 0862990459 & ISBN-13: 9780862990459) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 8831] & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

Coastal erosion at Brighton in 1676, by Hilda Rawlings, published March 1984 in Sussex Genealogist and Family Historian (vol. 5 no. 4, article, p.152) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 9173] & The Keep [LIB/501191] & CD SXGS from S.F.H.G.

Fishermen of Hastings: 200 years of the Hastings fishing community, by Steve Peak, published 1985 (160 pp., Newsbooks, ISBN-10: 0951070606 & ISBN-13: 9780951070604) accessible at: The Keep [LIB/502772] & Old Hastings Prervation Society & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries
The only full history of one of Britain's oldest fishing communities. This book not only gives the history of the community but the people and boats. A very useful book for researching and for interest.

The rise and decline of a south coast seafaring town: Brighton, 1550-1750, by John H. Farrant, published 1985 in Mariners' Mirror (vol. 71, article, pp.59-76) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 9248] & The Keep [LIB/502535]

The Harbours of Sussex as part of an Inland Transport System in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, by John H. Farrant, published 1985 in Sussex Industrial History (issue no. 15, article, pp.2-11) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 16389/15] & The Keep [LIB/506525]   Download PDF
The stretch of coast within the bounds of the ancient county of Sussex has no intrinsic significance in transport history. Since the silting of Rye harbour in the seventeenth century, it has lacked a major natural harbour, for Chichester was and is accessible only to small craft. None of the harbours had more than a local hinterland (with one exception mentioned below): although the hinterlands cannot be defined with much precision, and varied over time and for different commodities, in general they probably did not reach beyond the limits of the county because of the proximity of Southampton to the west, London and the Medway to the north, and Dover to the east.
Furthermore, 'harbour' has to embrace any place frequented by shipping, whether or not graced by harbour works, because much cargo was landed from vessels run aground on the beach until the 1820s and continued to be at Hastings and in Chichester harbour until about 1880.

Shoreham Beach: a case study in the emergence of modern town planning, by Dennis Hardy and Colin Ward, published July 1985 in Town Planning Review (vol. 56, no. 3, article, pp.273-291)

Stratigraphy of the upper cretaceous white chalk of Sussex, by R. N. Mortimore, published 1986 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (no. 97 issue 2, article, pp.97-139)   View Online
The Middle/Upper Chalk boundary has been removed from the geological maps in the current survey of the Chalk of Sussex by the British Geological Survey leaving an undifferentiated Middle-Upper Chalk. In place of this undivided sequence, six new Members are introduced using Rowe's (1900-1908) term 'White Chalk' for the Formation with stratotypes nominated in the thickest sequences along the Sussex coast between Beachy Head and Brighton and around Lewes.
  1. The Ranscombe Chalk Member extends from the base of the Melbourn Rock, through a succession 70-100 m thick, to the top of a massively bedded sequence containing conspicuous marl seams that occurs within the Terebratulina lata Zone, terminating with the Glynde Marl. The basal marker is taken as the Foyle Marl at Eastbourne (boundary stratotype), and Gun Gardens Beachy Head is nominated as the holostratotype.
  2. The Ranscombe Chalk is succeeded by a sequence containing regular seams of nodular chalks and the first regular seams of flint. This sequence of nodular chalks with flints is named the Lewes Chalk Member and persists for some 80 m at Lewes, terminated by the upper of the Shoreham Marls at the traditional boundary between the Micraster cortestudinarium and Micraster coranquinum Zones. The basal marker is the Glynde Marl 1 in Caburn Pit, Lewes, boundary stratotype. Caburn Pit, South Street to Southerham Cliffs Lewes, and Beachy Head are nominated as holostratotype sections.
  3. Overlying the Shoreham Marls is a thick (60-80 m) sequence of soft, flint bearing, relatively featureless chalks containing seven conspicuous semi-tabular courses of flint; the Seaford Chalk Member. The basal marker is the Shoreham Marl 2 at Seaford Head, the boundary and holostratotype section.
  4. Flint bearing chalks with marl seams return in the crinoid and Offaster pilula Zones and characterise the 60-80 m thick Newhaven Chalk Member. The basal marker is the Buckle Marl 1 at Seaford Head, boundary stratotype and holostratotype section.
  5. Marl seams cease to be a significant lithology in the Gonioteuthis quadrata Zone where the chalk is generally very soft and featureless but contains several conspicuous courses of flint. This part of the succession is named the Culver Chalk Member and is between 60-100 m thick. The basal marker is the upper Castle Hill Marl at Seaford Head (boundary stratotype) and the only reasonably accessible, complete section through this chalk at Whitecliff Isle of Wight, is nominated as the holostratotype section.
  6. Marl seams return in the uppermost part of the G. quadrata Zone and persist into the lower part of the Belemnitella mucronata Zone. These beds are found in the highest chalk on the Isle of Wight, Portsdown and the Sussex coast east of Bognor Regis and form the Portsdown Chalk Member. The basal marker is the Portsdown Marl at the Farlington British Gas Store and Whitecliff (boundary and holostratotype sections).
These six members are divided into groups of beds within which numerous lithological marker horizons are identified. Conspicuous marl seams are chosen as the key markers dividing the members and beds and these seams can be recognised on geophysical borehole logs as well as in the field. The relationship of this stratigraphy to geophysical borehole logs, to the key fossil marker bands and to Upper Cretaceous Stage boundaries is shown.

London by the Sea; Resort development on the South Coast of England 1880-1939, by S. Farrant, published 1987 in Journal of Contemporary History (vol. 22, article, pp.137-162) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 9770]

Coastal sedimentation in East Sussex during the Holocene, by S. Jennings and C. Smyth, published 1987 in Progress in Oceanography (vol. 18, no. 1-4, article, pp.205-241)

Frost and Salt Weathering of Chalk Shore Platforms near Brighton, Sussex, U. K., by D. A. Robinson and L. C. Jerwood, published 1987 in Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (vol. 12, no. 2, article, pp.217-226)
Extensive spalling and cracking of chalk exposed in cliffs and on shore platforms in the vicinity of Brighton was observed during severe weather in January 1985. Quadrat analysis of the shore platforms is used to show a progressive downshore decline in the frequency of spalling. Laboratory simulations of tidal cycles support the field evidence that chalk exposed on the upper reaches of the platforms would have been subject to destructive freeze-thaw action. Laboratory evidence supporting the idea that frost damage is increased by the presence of salts in seawater is also presented, and it is suggested that the combined action of frost and salt weathering may be an effective weathering process in temperate coastal environments.

The Seaford Sea Defence Scheme, by A. E. Holmes, published April 1989 in Water and Environment Journal (vol. 3, issue 2, article, pp.101-108)   View Online
During the last 100 years the shingle beach levels at Seaford have gradually declined, with the result that the 10-m high sea wall, protecting low-lying areas of the town against flooding, came under serious threat of collapse.
Southern Water Authority assumed responsibility for the frontage in 1981, and the paper briefly describes the history of events leading into the problem, model studies, and the solution which was adopted. Details of behaviour of the beach during the months following completion, including the great storm of October 1987, are also given.

Hastings and Bexhill Drainage and Sea Outfall Schemes, by R. B. Armstron, B.Sc., M.I.C.E., J. C. Foxley, M.I.C.E., N. J. Bennett, B.Sc., M.I.C.E. and R. g. Morley, M.I.C.E., published April 1989 in Water and Environment Journal (vol. 3, issue 2, article, pp.135-146)   View Online
The development of the Hastings and Bexhill drainage systems since the early 1960s is described. Most of the 18 million investment has taken place in the last decade in several phases which were completed in 1988. Ultimate disposal of sewage is by long sea outfall. The new works include two pumping stations and rising mains leading to a header tower serving the outfall. A number of innovations are included to overcome technical problems and reduce costs. The paper concludes with some comments on operational aspects of the new works.

Holocene evolution of the gravel coastline of East Sussex, by S. Jennings and C. Smyth, published 1990 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (no. 101 issue 3, article, pp.213-224)   View Online
The East Sussex coastline has been a sedimentary sink during the Holocene. Therefore, variations in the type and quantity of sediment transported within the coastal system may have been the principal factors determining stratigraphie sequences. The variations in sediment supply have found a morphological expression in periodic prograding and retrograding of coastal barriers. An examination of the origin and development of the present gravel barrier beaches indicates that much of the beach sediment probably has its origin in the Pleistocene, while during the Holocene, variations in the littoral drift system and associated changes in geomorphic processes, especially between reflective and dissipative domains, have exerted a major control upon coastal evolution in East Sussex.

Where the River meets the Sea: One Hundred Years of the Sussex Yacht Club, by Dick Durham, published 1991 (148 pp., Sussex Yacht Club) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 13474] & West Sussex Libraries

Phosphatic concretions in the Wealden of South-East England, by Kevin Taylor, published 1991 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (no. 102 issue 1, article, pp.67-70)   View Online
Phosphatic concretions are reported from several locations in the Wealden sediments of South-east England. The occurrence of such concretions in the Wealden sediments has not previously been recognised and in some cases in the past they may have been mistaken for siderite concretions. The predominant mineral in these concretions, as determined by X-ray diffraction analysis, is francolite, a hydroxy-carbonate apatite. Both primary concretions from the Weald Clay and reworked examples in the Hastings Beds have been recognised.

Ordnance recommended to arm defensive earthworks proposed for the Sussex coast in 1587, by Pam Combes, published 1995 in Wealden Iron Research Group (Second Series No. 15, article, pp.4-8, ISSN: 0266-4402) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 16400] & The Keep [LIB/506562]   Download PDF
In 1870 Mark Anthony Lower published a copy of a survey of the coast of Sussex the original manuscript of which was, at that time, owned by a Lewes solicitor, Wynne E Baxter. The manuscript was purchased in 1971 by the British Museum and is now British Library Add ms 57494. The manuscript is entitled, 'A survey made by Sir Thomas Palmere knight and Mr Walter Couverte esquire Deputie Lieutenants of her Maties Countie of Sussex, of all the places of descente alongst the sea coast of the said shire'. The map is coloured and on vellum and the text is on paper. The survey is signed and dated Nicholas Reynolds, London, May 1587.

Beachy Head to South Foreland Shoreline Management Plan: case study, by B. Tomlinson and others, published November 1995 in Coastal management: putting policy into practice (article, pp.274-286)

The shaping of the Selsey coastline: a review of the geomorhology, archaeology and history, by Anne E. Bone, published 30 June 1996 in Tertiary Research (vol. 16, nos. 1-4, article, pp.5-14)

Classic Landforms of the Sussex Coast, by Rodney Castleden, published 29 December 1996 (38 pp., Geographical Association, ISBN-10: 1899085173 & ISBN-13: 9781899085170) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

The Chronology, Palaeogeography and Archaeological Significance of the Marine Quaternary Record of the West Sussex Coastal Plain, Southern England, UK, by M. R. Bates and others, published 1997 in Quaternary Science reviews (vol. 16, no. 10, article, pp.1227-1252) accessible at: British Library

Probabilistic risk assessment of beach erosion at Pevensey Bay in England, by Ping Dong and Keith J. Riddell, published 1997 in Coastal Engineering (article, pp.4717-4729)   Download PDF

Sussex: The Sunshine Coast. Your home and away leisure guide, published 1999 (pamphlet, Newsquest Sussex Limited) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 13987]

The Coast and Coastal Changes, by David Robinson, published 1 January 1999 in An Historical Atlas of Sussex (pp.8-9, Chichester: Phillimore & Co. Ltd, ISBN-10: 1860771122 & ISBN-13: 9781860771125) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 14026][Lib 18777] & The Keep [LIB/501686][LIB/508903] & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

Medieval Markets and Ports, by John Bleach and Mark Gardiner, published 1 January 1999 in An Historical Atlas of Sussex (pp.42-43, Chichester: Phillimore & Co. Ltd, ISBN-10: 1860771122 & ISBN-13: 9781860771125) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 14026][Lib 18777] & The Keep [LIB/501686][LIB/508903] & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

Coast Blockade, The: The Royal Navy's War on Smuggling in Kent and Sussex, 1817-31, by Roy Philp, published 15 November 1999 (176 pp., Horsham: P. Compton, ISBN-10: 0953602206 & ISBN-13: 9780953602209) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries
This is the detailed history of a fourteen year naval campaign fought by some 3000 naval officers and men stationed on the coasts of South East England from Sheerness to Chichester.

Late Middle Pleistocene deposits at Norton Farm on the West Sussex coastal plain, southern England, by Martin R. Bates and others, published January 2000 in Journal of Quaternary Science (vol. 15, issue 1, article, pp.61-89) accessible at: British Library   View Online
The coastal plain of West Sussex, southern England, is internationally important because of the sequence of discrete high-sea-level events preserved at various elevations across it. New evidence is presented from a site at Norton Farm, near Chichester, on the Lower Coastal Plain, where Pleistocene marine sands, fining upwards into silts, occur between 5.3 m and 9.1 m OD. The sequence reflects a regressive tendency at the transition from an interglacial to a cold stage. The marine sands have yielded foraminifera, ostracods and molluscs that indicate a declining marine influence through the sequence, culminating in a tidal mudflat, strongly weathered in places. Cool-climate foraminifera (including Elphidium clavatum, Cassidulina reniformis and Elphidium albiumbilicatum) and ostracods have been recovered from the marine sands. Some species with an apparent preference for warmer water conditions, however, are also present. Freshwater taxa washed into the terminal marine sediments include some cold climate indicators, such as Pisidium stewarti and P. obtusale lapponicum. Additional evidence for cool climatic conditions during the deposition of the upper part of the marine sequence is provided by the lack of tree taxa in the pollen record and by features of the micromorphology. The marine sediments probably began accumulating during OIS 7, a conclusion based on their elevation, on amino acid ratios from shells, but especially on vertebrate evidence, particularly the presence of a small form of horse, together with a large, distinctive, form of northern vole (Microtus oeconomus). The occurrence of cool climate indicators in these marine sediments may demonstrate a lag between the climatic deterioration and the expected glacio-eustatic fall in relative sea-level. This evidence appears to support the conclusions drawn from the study of coral terraces in Barbados. Such a scenario would provide the conditions necessary for the emplacement of the large erratic boulders reported from the Lower Coastal Plain of West Sussex.

The British seaside resorts: holidays and resorts in the twentieth century, by J. Walton, published 1 November 2000 (228 pp., Manchester University Press, ISBN-10: 0719051703 & ISBN-13: 9780719051708) accessible at: East Sussex Libraries

Seaside Entertainment in Sussex, by W. H. Johnson, published 2001 (120 pp., Seaford: S. B. Publications, ISBN-10: 1857702220 & ISBN-13: 9781857702224) accessible at: The Keep [LIB/502238] & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

Metalwork, burnt mounds and settlement on the West Sussex Coastal Plain: a contextual study, by D. J. Dunkin, published 2001 in Antiquity (vol. 75, part 288, article, pp.261-262) accessible at: British Library

The measurement of the erosion of the chalk shore platform of East Sussex, the effect of coastal defence structures and the efficacy of macro scale bioerosive agents, by Claire Elizabeth Andrews, 2001 at Sussex University (Ph.D. thesis)

The meeting of the waters: raised beaches and river gravels of the Sussex Coastal Plain/Hampshire Basin, by M. R. Bates and others, published January 2001 in Lithic Studies Occasional Paper; Palaeolithic archaeology of the Solvent river; Southampton, 2000 (article, pp.27-46) accessible at: British Library

Seaside Entertainment in Sussex, by J. H. Johnson, published 1 May 2001 (120 pp., Seaford: S. B. Publications, ISBN-10: 1857702220 & ISBN-13: 9781857702224) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

The South Coast Beat Scene of the 1960s, by Mike Read, published 1 December 2001 (374 pp., Woodfield Publishing, ISBN-10: 1903953146 & ISBN-13: 9781903953143) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries

Rithes, Rifes and Lakes: Another View of the Toponymy of the West Sussex Coastal Plain, by John Pile, published Spring 2001 in West Sussex History, the Journal of West Sussex Archives Society (no. 67, article, p.16) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 16404/67] & The Keep [LIB/500491]

Eastbourne coast protection, 1991-2000, by B. E. Waters, published 2002 in Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Water and maritime engineering (vol. 154, issue 1, article, pp.1-18) accessible at: British Library

Coastal cliff retreat and instability in a weak rock, Fairlight Cove, East Sussex, UK, by M. J. Palmer and others, published 2002 in Instability - planning and management; seeking sustainable solutions to ground movement problems (article, pp.535-542) accessible at: British Library

The English Seaside in Victorian and Edwardian Times, by John Hannavy, published 2003 (Shire Publications, ISBN-10: 0747805717 & ISBN-13: 9780747805717) accessible at: Eastbourne Heritage Centre & East Sussex Libraries

Coastal cliff geohazards in weak rock: the UK Chalk cliffs of Sussex, by R. N. Mortimore and others, published 2004 in Engineering geology special publication (no. 20, article, pp.3-32) accessible at: British Library

A sturzstrom-like cliff fall on the Chalk coast of Sussex, UK, by R.B.G. Williams, published 2004 in Geological Society, London, Engineering Geology Special Publications (vol. 20, no. 1, article, pp.89-97)

Predicting overwashing and breaching of coarse-clastic barrier beaches and spits?Application to Medmerry, West Sussex, southern England, by S. Cope, published 2005 in Proceedings of Coastal Dynamics (article)

Biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England: Implications for saline lagoons, by C. B. Joyce and others, published 2005 in Estuarine, coastal and shelf science (vol. 65, no. 4, article, pp.633-644) accessible at: British Library

Predicting Overwashing and Breaching of Coarse-Clastic Barrier Beachesand Spits?Application to Medmerry, West Sussex, by Samantha N. Cope, published 2006 in Coastal Dynamics 2005: State of the Practice (article, pp.1-14)

Chalk cliff retreat in East Sussex and Kent 1870s to 2001, by U. Dornbusch, published 2006 in Journal of Maps (article, pp.71-78)   Download PDF
The retreat of chalk cliffs fringing the eastern English Channel contributes shingle to the beaches which helps to protect the cliffs and slow down erosion. Conversely, cliff retreat endangers settlements and infrastructure on the clifftop. Rates of retreat have been calculated by a variety of methods over the past century, but no attempt has been made to provide a complete coverage that allows for a true comparison of retreat rates over the entire coastline. Using historic maps and recent orthophotos, cliff retreat rates have been calculated for consecutive 50 m sections of chalk cliff along the English side of the entire eastern English Channel for a period of 125 years. The chalk cliffs of East Sussex erode at an average rate of 0.25 - 0.3 m y-1 while those in Kent at a rate of 0.1 m y-1.

The social and economic impact of railway development on the coastal plain communities of Sussex during the nineteenth century , by Anthony Wakeford, 2006 at Sussex University (Ph.D. thesis)

Along the Sussex Coast, by Ray Hollands, published 22 June 2006 (144 pp., Stroud: Sutton Publishing Ltd., ISBN-10: 0750940638 & ISBN-13: 9780750940634) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries
Ray Hollands presents a photographic record of a journey along the beautiful Sussex coastline, beginning at Chichester, passing along the way, Selsey Bill, Bognor, Littlehampton, Worthing and Shoreham, before reaching the settlements of Brighton and Hove.

Recovery of the seabed following marine aggregate dredging on the Hastings Shingle Bank off the southeast coast of England, by Keith Cooper, published 2007 in Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (vol. 75, no. 4, article, pp.547-558)

Walking the south coast of England : a complete guide to walking the south-facing coasts of Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Hampshire (including the Isle of Wight), Sussex and Kent, from Land's End to South Foreland, by David Bathurst, published 2008 (232 pp., Summersdale Publishers, ISBN-10: 1840246545 & ISBN-13: 9781840246544) accessible at: British Library & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

The development of the detached sea-facing villa along the south coast c.1740-1800, by Sue Berry, published 2008 in The Georgian Group Journal (vol. XVI, article, pp.31-42) accessible at: The Keep [LIB/502315]

Artificial beach recharge: the South East England experience, by Cherith A. Moses and Rendel B.G. Williams, published 2008 in Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementary Issues  (vol. 52, no. 3, article, pp.107-124)
Artificial beach nourishment and beach recycling are widely used shoreline management techniques in the UK, especially in Sussex and east Kent where the majority of beaches are composed of mixed gravel and sand. Beach nourishment schemes in Sussex date back to the late nineteenth century; recycling was under way by 1900. Until the 1970s, beach nourishment in Sussex and east Kent was small-scale and occasional, but since this date there have been a proliferation of schemes, some very large-scale. Beach nourishment volumes peaked in 1995-1999; recycling in 1990-1994. To date, at least 6.7 million m3 of shingle and sand have been added to the beaches of Sussex and east Kent, and at least 7.6 million m3 of beach material recycled. The total investment in beach nourishment has a present day replacement value of about £ 134 million, while the recycling that has been undertaken can be valued at a further £ 10-11 million at present prices. The amounts of material added to the region's beaches indicate that South East England has undergone a 'sedimentary crisis'. The volume of fresh shingle derived from cliff erosion is currently insufficient to offset losses. The nourished beaches have performed well, but costs of beach nourishment have risen fivefold since the late 1980s, and it is unclear how long the technique will remain cost effective. If sea-levels rise as predicted due to global warming, beach nourishment will provide only a short-term 'fix'. In the medium to long term, as costs of beach nourishment rise to unacceptable levels, serious consideration will need to be given to abandoning some low-lying coastal areas.

Unstable boundaries on a cliffed coast: geomorphology and British laws, by Derek J. McGlashan, Robert W. Duck, and Colin T. Reid, published 2008 in Journal of Coastal Research  (vol. 24, article, pp.181-188)
Coastal erosion is a problem around much of the coast of Great Britain. This paper uses the example of Birling Gap in East Sussex to highlight a variety of problems associated with property boundaries on eroding cliffed coasts. The legal foreshore definitions (generally owned by the Crown) from English and Scots laws are compared with the use of tidal data from the nearest reliable tide gauge at Newhaven. With a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet model and shore profiling, these data are used to identify the extent of private property in the coastal environment at Birling Gap under both Scots and English law. The paper highlights that under both definitions, a small parcel of ?land? exists at the base of the cliffs that is owned by the adjacent cliff top landowner. Therefore, the foreshores as defined in (Scots and English) law on the mainland of Great Britain do not fully enclose the envelope of coastal processes. Under Scots and English law, the foreshore is defined on the basis of tidal heights, irrespective of the mobility of the substrate that the foreshore boundary is drawn on. The cliff morphology at Birling Gap strongly suggests control by marine erosion; however, the tidal data from Newhaven suggest otherwise when compared with the shore profiles. A number of reasons are identified to explain a substantial difference in the height of the beach at Birling Gap and the observed tidal heights at Newhaven, including the distance from the tide gauge, the damping effects of tide gauges, and the morphology of the beach. We conclude that, under British property laws, a small area of the upper beach (which regularly changes in shape and size) is owned by the adjacent landowner and is technically under their control despite being regularly inundated by the tides.

Temporal and spatial variations of chalk cliff retreat in East Sussex, 1873 to 2001, by Uwe Dombusch, David A. Robinson, Cherith A. Moses and Rendel B. Williams, published 2008 in Marine Geology (vol. 249, no. 3, article, pp.271-282)
Spatial and temporal variations of chalk cliff retreat rates over a 130 yr period are examined for 22 km of the East Sussex chalk coastline between Brighton and Belle TouteTout lighthouse, England. Data are derived from maps surveyed between 1873 and 1925/28 and air photographs dating from 1973 and 2001. The long-term average cliff retreat rate over the period 1873 to 1973 is 0.36 m y- 1 and from 1873 to 2001 is 0.35 m y- 1. Over the whole 23 km study area, rates calculated over shorter time slices indicate a decline in cliff retreat: 0.37 m y- 1 between 1873 and 1925/28; 0.35 m y- 1 between 1925/28 and 1973; 0.27 m y- 1 between 1973 and 2001. Temporal variations are unlikely to be due to variations in precipitation and frost days though the relationship remains uncertain due to the resolution of available cliff retreat and climatic data. Changes in wave climate are small and cannot be responsible for the decline in cliff retreat. The study suggests that the most important factors causing the measured decline in cliff retreat rates are firstly, the loss of cliff toe beaches over time and secondly, widening of the rocky shore platforms that front the cliffs. Some of the spatial variability in retreat rates can be explained by local variations in lithology.

Unstable boundaries on a cliffed coast: geomorphology and British laws, by Derek J. McGlashan, Robert W. Duck and Colin T. Reid, published January 2008 in Journal of Coastal Research (vol. 24, no. 1A, supplement, article, pp.181-188)

Tour Along The Sussex Coast, by David Arscott, published 17 October 2008 (96 pp., Snake Piver Press Ltd., ISBN-10: 1906022178 & ISBN-13: 9781906022174) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

An animal geography of avian foraging competition on the Sussex coast of England, by Michael Campbell, published 2010 in Journal of Coastal Research  (article, pp.44-52)   Download PDF

Peterborough ware from Westbourne: a rare Middle Neolithic 'ritual' deposit from the West Sussex Coastal Plain, by Mike Seager Thomas, published 2010 in Sussex Archæological Collections (vol. 148, article, pp.7-16) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 18613] & The Keep [LIB/500366] & S.A.S. library   View Online
Excavation by Development Archaeology Services at Westbourne, West Sussex, has uncovered a small pit containing an unusually fine assemblage of Neolithic Peterborough ware pottery, including one of only two complete Peterborough ware profiles found in the county to date. This paper discusses their internal and external relationships. Features and pottery of these sorts are widely seen as ritual or symbolic rather than functional (e.g. Drewett 2003; Thomas 1999). The evidence from Westbourne points, however, not to ritual or symbolic practices as an explanation of Peterborough ware pits locally, but to everyday domestic routine.

Fisherman Against the Kaiser: Shockwaves of War 1915-1915, by Douglas D'Enno, published 18 March 2010 (240 pp., Pen & Sword Books Ltd., ISBN-10: 1844159795 & ISBN-13: 9781844159796) accessible at: East Sussex Libraries
British fishermen are among the unsung heroes of the First World War. The conflict with Germany had an immediate and enduring impact on their lives and livelihood. They were immediately caught up in the sea war against the Kaiser's navy, confronting the threats presented by the submarines, minelayers, gunboats and capital ship of the High Seas Fleet. Often they found themselves thrust into strange, dangerous situations, which put their lives at risk and tested to the limit their bravery and skill as seamen. This is their fascinating story.
For the first time in this two-volume study Douglas d'Enno provides a comprehensive and lasting record of the services rendered by the fishermen and their vessels, both under naval control and on their own account. His pioneering history shows the full extent of their contribution to the British war effort, from minesweeping and submarine detection to patrol, escort and counterattack duties. The areas of action were not limited to the home waters of the Channel, the North Sea and the Western Approaches but ranged as far as the Arctic and the Mediterranean's Aegean and Adriatic seas. Extraordinary stories are recounted here of the hazards of minesweeping, battles with U-boats, decoy missions, patrols, blockades, rescues and capture by the enemy. First-hand accounts make up the essence of the material. Reports from the leading trade journals, specialist literature and personal manuscripts vividly recall the fishermen's experiences and the hardships and dangers they faced throughout the war.

Romney Marsh: Persistence and Change in a Coastal Lowland, by Martyn P. Waller, Elizabeth Edwards and Luke Barber, published 1 August 2010 (208 pp., Romney Marsh Research Trust, ISBN-10: 0956657508 & ISBN-13: 9780956657503)

The Holocene coastal deposits of Sussex: a re-evaluation, by Martyn Waller and A. Long, published 1 August 2010 in Romney Marsh: Persistence and Change in a Coastal Lowland (pp.1-21, Romney Marsh Research Trust, ISBN-10: 0956657508 & ISBN-13: 9780956657503)   View Online

Shipwrecks of Sussex, by Wendy Hughes, published 1 June 2011 (160 pp., The Histroy Press, ISBN-10: 0752460102 & ISBN-13: 9780752460109) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries
Exploring the shipwrecks of the Sussex coast, from the 1600s to the present day
Review by Ed Jarzembowski in Sussex Past & Present no. 125, December 2011:
Disaster at sea has an enduring appeal. Writing a history book on shipwrecks on and off the Sussex coast is, however, a daunting task because there are so many, as highlighted here. A selection is inevitable, and the author has accomplished this in ten comparatively short, racy and readable chapters. Accounts of older shipwrecks are hampered by a shortage of documentary records and the Nympha Americana's 1747 mercury cargo is about as near as we get to sunken treasure. This is the first time I have read, however, about the loss of the Ptolemanus (1797) and the Tidemills Temptress (page 45), but am still left wondering if vessels were once deliberately lured onto the Sussex coast by the locals.
The bulk of the book deals with diverse wrecks and strandings from the 19th and 20th centuries. In many cases, recorded people can be linked with events and artefacts on what are, after all, time capsules. Shipwrecks have even inspired street names, although I am surprised at the omission of Woodward Close, Eastbourne, surely commemorating a musician on the Titanic (1912). There are some unexpected legacies, like the painted ivory nuts from the Peruvian (1899), and I must try the beer using yeast from an unnamed Littlehampton wreck.
In the background are significant changes in contemporary trade, technology and society. There are some typos (e.g. picture caption page 75) but I love the image of an iron steamship being reduced to matchwood (page 66). This is a perfect read in the middle of winter when it is dark and gusty outside, but unlike my wife Brigid, I hope I never hear the unforgettable thumping of a grounded sailing ship (Eendracht, 1998, page 94).

Smuggling on the South Coast, by Chris McCooey, published 22 March 2012 (192 pp., Stroud: Amberley Publishing, ISBN-10: 1445604590 & ISBN-13: 9781445604596) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries
A smuggler . . . 'honest thief ' or 'wretch'? Opinion was divided some two hundred years ago when smuggling was in its heyday and known as 'that infamous traffick'. Charles Lamb, the essayist, was in favour when he wrote in the early 1800s, 'I like a smuggler; he is the only honest thief.' The great lexicographer, Dr Johnson, begged to differ when he wrote this definition in his dictionary: 'A smuggler is a wretch who, in defiance of the laws, imports or exports without payment of the customs.' Most people would rather agree with Lamb, but the author shows that Johnson's definition is nearer the truth. The book traces the early history of open smuggling back to the illegal export of Britain's Golden Fleece - the so-called 'owling' of raw wool to the Continent. The violent heyday of the contraband trade came in the eighteenth century when heavy taxes on luxury items made their illegal importation highly profitable. The British love for these supposed luxuries of tea, tobacco and spirits is explained in fascinating detail. The second half of the book is devoted to the notorious Hawkhurst Gang, who held sway throughout Kent and Sussex and, having bought the contraband in the Channel Islands or the Low Countries, smuggled it ashore along the South Coast. To protect their infamous trafficking, the gang resorted to wholesale corruption, terrorism and murder, the latter invariably a result of heavy drinking. Their enormous crimes are described in detail, as are the trials which finally broke up the gang in 1749. Smuggling on the South Coast is the result of five years' research in which the author has traced the history of an era which was brought to a violent and bloody conclusion in the 1830s. It dispels many misconceptions that the reader may have about the subject and provides a new insight into an intriguing period of our history.

Sussex Coast Through Time, by Douglas D'Enno, published 6 April 2012 (96 pp., Stroud: Amberley Publishing, ISBN-10: 1445605465 & ISBN-13: 9781445605463) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries
This fascinating selection of photographs traces some of the many ways in the Sussex Coast has changed and developed over the last century.
Review by Maria Gardiner in Sussex Past & Present no. 129, April 2013:
There are many books of photographs of the beautiful Sussex coastline, but Douglas d'Enno in his book Sussex Coast Through Time is more concerned to focus on the social changes which have occurred over the last 150 years on or near the shoreline. He does this by presenting us with a series of contrasting images beginning with Camber Sands in the east, and ending 90 miles away in Chichester Harbour using a mixture of paintings, postcards and photographs dating from the latter part of the 19th century.
An early pairing is labelled 'Rye Harbour Postmaster' and shows Mr A G Hedgler looking out of the front door of the Post Office in the 1920s, compared with the current use as residences of both the Post Office and the neighbouring Methodist Chapel. Similar contrasts are shown by those of central Shoreham, whilst those of East Brighton show what Brighton people are missing whilst the Black Rock site still awaits development.
In researching the book the author made use of many local experts who shared their knowledge of building use and offered glimpses into the lives of the people in the images. A 1939 postcard of the Pagham Riviera Lido Holiday Club was sent by someone who had to leave because of evacuation. 'I wish Hitler at the bottom of the sea' the sender cries.
It is noteworthy that many of the photographs have never been published before in a book, and this distinguishes Sussex Coast Through Time from other volumes of before and after images. It should be of interest to both general readers and social historians.

The Wreck of the Fairfax: A fifth foreshore wreck below the Seven Sisters, by E & B Jarzembowski, published April 2012 in Sussex Past & Present (no. 126, article, p.8, ISSN: 1357-7417) accessible at: The Keep [LIB/500475] & S.A.S. library   View Online
At 6am on Thursday 10th February 1881, a leaking, three-masted steam screw ship called the Fairfax ploughed across the flint and chalk platform near the then Crowlink coastguard station. Made of iron and weighing 930 tons, she slid to a halt with the bowsprit just yards from the cliff face. Fortunately, the tide was falling and help was at hand from the nearby station. All aboard were rescued without serious injury, despite a perilous assembly on a chalk boulder. The shipwreck briefly became an Eastbourne tourist attraction before being sold off at auction on the 18th February. After the March inquest in London (maritime procedures moved fast then), the Fairfax was all but forgotten - until a rusty rib was spotted on an equinoctial tide in 2007, during an unsuccessful hunt for fossil reptiles.

Walking the Coastline of Sussex, by David Bathurst, published 15 July 2012 (120 pp., Seaford: S. B. Publications, ISBN-10: 1857703685 & ISBN-13: 9781857703689) accessible at: British Library & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries
The Sussex coastline is one of the most fascinating of any county of England, with so many contrasts: spectacular cliff-tops, wooded glens, gorse-clad hills, historic towns, picture postcard villages, cheerful resorts, harbours, long sandy beaches, dunes and marshlands. This book, now available again has been completely revised and re-walked by the author and with new photographs added, after having been out of print for 10 years. The walk is divided into ten sections. Each section provides: A map depicting the route, surrounding towns and rail links; Public transport information; A guide to the recommended route; Details of significant features to be seen; Historical information and a section providing information of refreshments and accommodation.
The author, David Bathurst lives in Chichester with his family. He is a solicitor by profession and is advisor to the Magistrates Court.

The sea fencibles in West Sussex, by John Goodwin, published 2013 in West Sussex History, the Journal of West Sussex Archives Society (no. 81, article, p.17) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 16404/81] & The Keep [LIB/507838]

The Sussex Coast: Land, Sea and the Geography of Hope, by Rodney Castleden, published 3 February 2013 (318 pp.,, ISBN-10: 1291285822 & ISBN-13: 9781291285826) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries
The Sussex coast has attracted people for thousands of years - for foraging, fishing, trade and defence, and more recently for retirement and leisure. Settlements are destroyed as the sea advances or stranded as it retreats; living here is exciting - and risky. Now that nearly one million people live on the Sussex coast, the problem of managing the relationship between people and the sea has become acute. A landscape history approach is used in this book, drawing on history, geography, geology, archaeology and the latest findings on coastal processes, to describe the trialogue between people, land and sea. This is essential reading for all who love the Sussex coast, are curious about its past and concerned about its future. 317pp, with 135 black and white illustrations.

Martello Towers, by Michael Foley, published 28 March 2013 (128 pp., Stroud: Amberley Publishing, ISBN-10: 1445615223 & ISBN-13: 9781445615226) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries
There are a number of strange buildings that stand on the south and east coasts of England, often thought to be water towers or ventilation shafts. They are, in fact, important historical defences, built to stop Napoleon's army invading our shores during the wars of the early nineteenth century. Any ship approaching the coast could come under fire from at least four of the buildings at once. They are the Martello towers. More than a hundred were built along the coasts of Kent, Sussex, Essex and Suffolk. Others were built in Ireland and other parts of the empire. Their creation caused severe differences of opinion between some of the best-known men of the period. Names such as Nelson, Wellington, Pitt and Cobbett all had something to say about them. Although never used in the Napoleonic Wars, they were in many cases updated and played a part in later conflicts, including both World Wars. Many have succumbed to coastal erosion and experiments by the Royal Artillery. Of those that remain, some have been converted into dwellings and others are now museums. They are still an important part of our military and social history, and here Michael Foley provides history, details and photographs of all the remaining Martello towers along England's coastline.

Medieval Pirates: Pirates, Raiders and Privateers 1204-1453, by Jill Eddison, published 2 September 2013 (192 pp., The History Press, ISBN-10: 0752481037 & ISBN-13: 9780752481036) accessible at: The Keep [LIB/508963] & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries
Review by Richard Saville in Sussex Past & Present no. 132, April 2014:
On coasts and in the ports of the Channel from the western approaches to Flanders Jill Eddison explains the potential for plunder, piracy and ship wrecking during the 250 years from 1204 to 1453. Early chapters guide us through the background and potential for conflict, describing the potential for loot from the medieval trade in Spanish iron, continental wines and salts, English wools, Cornish tin, and a host of rich clothes, tableware, furniture, and gradually, via the Genoese and Venetian merchants, the foodstuffs and medicines from Byzantium. The chapter on the evolution of shipbuilding gives a clear view of how the medieval mind grappled with boat design. Also how mariners hugged the islands and coasts which offered havens from Atlantic lows and the resulting storms, sailing without barometers, and utilising the experience of numerous voyages.
Fractured government during this era meant authority in ports was mediated by local merchants, their corporations, the barons, and the social strata sailing the boats; within which the consequent fluctuations between the power of local and national government gave space to privateering, piracy, ship wrecking and the plunder of ships seeking shelter from storms. The natural world added its woes and a social strata of mariners and townsmen emerged on both sides of the Channel, contemptuous of royal authority, a strata at once cruel and vicious, with little regard to ordinary sailors and folk ashore.
One is faced with legal and government evidence that numerous atrocities were committed by many in the south coast ports, especially by Cinque portsmen. This was certainly evident in times when kings declared war against France and Spain, though between such episodes the long stretches of uncertain conditions encouraged the portsmen to think only of themselves, to oppose regal authority when it suited, to attack supposed enemies, neutral shipping, and fishermen seen as competitors.
This book includes much material on the Cinque ports, which by the thirteenth century had morphed from basic trade and fishing communities into a cartel for looting ships, for attacking other ports, lounging around the Channel as a bandetti with piracy covered by the royal seal, conducting feuds both at home and abroad. Such warfare for self-interest, together with the royal claims to western France, leaves us a mass of useful archives.
This readable book is lavishly illustrated including 25 black and white drawings, photographs and well drawn maps, plus 15 colour photographs. Marcus Rediker's Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea drew our attention to the Caribbean pirates, and Jill Eddison's work will give a new focus to the history of our medieval channel, with its quite different social norms and cultures from the more civilised Europe of the early modern world.

Managed realignment in the UK: the role of the environment Agency, by Karen Thomas, published 2014 in Managed Realgnment: a viable long-term coastal management strategy ? (article, pp.83-94)
Mainly on the Medmerry site, Manhood Peninsula

Country Walks by the Sussex Coast: From Thorney Island to Camber Sands, by Jonny Young, published 1 June 2014 (112 pp., Seaford: S. B. Publications, ISBN-10: 1857703715 & ISBN-13: 9781857703719) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries
The counties of East and West Sussex boast some of the most beautiful scenery to be found anywhere along the southern edge of England. Experienced walker, Jonny Young, takes us on a series of invigorating and fascinating journeys across the miles between the beauty spots of Thorney Island and Camber Sands.
The walks are clearly described and presented with maps and references in a helpful and easy-to-follow format. As the paths unfold, historical and contemporary details are revealed. The routes take in many of East and West Sussex's best-known coastal towns and villages and the surrounding countryside, whilst uncovering some hidden treasures of the counties' impressive coastal heritage.
Presented in full colour, with many of the author's scenic photographs, this is an indispensible guide for anyone with a love for walking and an interest in the English landscape.
Jonny Young is a dedicated walker and keen aficionado of the English countryside.

Bradshaw's Guide: Surrey & Sussex Railways London, Brighton and South coast, by Simon Jeffs, published 15 July 2014 (96 pp., Stroud: Amberley Publishing, ISBN-10: 1445640406 & ISBN-13: 9781445640402) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries
The LBSCR was the main route connecting London with Brighton and the pleasures of the South Coast resorts. In this latest volume Bradshaw takes us on the journey and, via the numerous branch lines, also explores the coastal lines, westwards to Chichester and eastwards, on the Brighton and Lewes branch to Eastbourne, St Leonards and Hastings. The network of branch lines within Surrey and Sussex reaches a number of destinations including Croydon, Redhill, Reigate, Dorking, Guildford, Epsom, East Grinstead, Horsham, Uckfield and Battle, and in the north of Surrey the LSWR loop takes in Richmond and Kew.
'Seldom has the gigantic intellect of man been employed upon a work of greater utility.' Punch, in praise of Bradshaw's publications.
Bradshaw's guide was published in 1863, not that long after most of the railway network had been completed. It gives the reader a unique insight into the world of the Victorian railways and goes beyond the engineering aspects to record the sights to be seen in the towns and cities encountered along the way. Local author and railway expert Simon Jeffs accompanies Bradshaw's original text with contemporary images and many new colour photographs of the same journeys today.

By Steamer to the South Coast, by Andrew Gladwell, published 28 August 2014 (96 pp., Stroud: Amberley Publishing, ISBN-10: 1445614510 & ISBN-13: 9781445614519) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries
Since the dawn of steam navigation, people have taken pleasure cruises in Britain's rivers and estuaries and along the coast. Andrew Gladwell takes us on a tour of the south coast of England, illustrating the story of the paddle and pleasure steamers from south Devon to Sussex. Southampton and Bournemouth were the homes of the Red Funnel fleet, and Weymouth housed the ships of Cosens. Interlopers such as the White Funnel ships of P&A Campbell also operated in the area, as did independents in Brighton and Hastings. From the beauty of Lulworth Cove, where the paddlers would beach on the shallow sand to let passengers off, to the piers of Swanage, Poole, Bournemouth, the Isle of Wight, Southampton, Brighton, Eastbourne and Hastings, pleasure steamers were a common sight until the late 1960s, when Cosens finally closed and scrapped their ships, although the PS Waverley and the Balmoral still continue the tradition.

Channel Shore: From the White Cliffs to Land's End, by Tom Fort, published 7 May 2015 (448 pp., Simon & Schuster UK, ISBN-10: 1471129721 & ISBN-13: 9781471129728) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries
The English Channel is the busiest waterway in the world. Ferries steam back and forth, trains thunder through the tunnel. The narrow sea has been crucial to our development and prosperity. It helps define our notion of Englishness, as an island people, a nation of seafarers. It is also our nearest, dearest playground where people have sought sun, sin and bracing breezes.
Tom Fort takes us on a fascinating, discursive journey from east to west, to find out what this stretch of water means to us and what is so special about the English seaside, that edge between land and seawater. He dips his toe into Sandgate's waters, takes the air in Hastings and Bexhill, chews whelks in Brighton, builds a sandcastle in Sandbanks, sunbathes in sunny Sidmouth, catches prawns off the slipway at Salcombe and hunts a shark off Looe. Stories of smugglers and shipwreck robbers, of beachcombers and samphire gatherers, gold diggers and fossil hunters abound.

Understanding the physical processes occurring within a new coastal managed realignment site, Medmerry, Sussex, UK, by Heidi Burgess, Paul Kilkie and Tim Callaway, published 2016 in Coastal Management (article)   Download PDF

Hydrology and its implications for the Bronze Age landscape: a case study from the Sussex coastal plain and adjoining Downland block, by David Dunkin, published 2016 in Sussex Archæological Collections (vol. 154, article, pp.67-87) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 18939] & The Keep [LIB/509465] & S.A.S. library

The West Sussex Coast, published (no date) (Ward Lock & Co Ltd) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 15292]