Bibliography - Environment and natural history: Sand, silt and clay, study of (sedimentology)
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On the alluvial formations and the local changes of the South-Eastern coast of England. First section, from the River Thames to Beachy Head, by J. B. Redman, published May 1852 in Journal of the Franklin Institute (vol. 53, no. 5, article, pp.296-297)

On the Newer Tertiary Deposits of the Sussex Coast, by R. Godwin-Austen, published January 1856 in Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society (vol. 12, issue 1-2, article, pp.4-6)   View Online
From Brighton, westwards, between the chalk-hills and the sea, the surface of the country is formed, first, by a raised terrace of "red gravels," lying on the sloping base of the chalk-hills, and on the old tertiary deposits; secondly, the gravels of the Chichester levels, or the "white gravels." These latter are distinctly bedded and seamed with sand, and are more water-worn than the red gravels which pass under them; thirdly, the white gravels are overlaid by "brick-earth," which is somewhat variable in its characters. These, with their equivalents, are the Glacial deposits of the district in question.

On the newer Tertiary deposits of the Sussex coast, by R. Godwin-Austen, published January 1857 in Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society (vol. 13, no. 1-2, article, pp.40-72)   View Online
It was only a very short time since, and that, too, in the most advanced treatises on systematic geology, that certain superficial accumulations of every European district were grouped together, as belonging to "the diluvial period." Recent investigations are now beginning to assure us of the great amount of physical change which is referable to that period, and also that it was not transitory, nor convulsive, as it has been frequently represented. Already it is separable into stages and subdivisions, whereby the lapse of time is becoming clearly marked out.
The knowledge we possess of the history of these later changes is as yet a very imperfect one, and it is not perhaps too much to assert, that, of all geological periods, that which comes nearest to our own times is the one which is the least understood. If the accumulations themselves in these regions are wanting in those vertical dimensions which speak directly to the eye as to the vast duration of the older palæozoic, secondary, and tertiary periods, the very fact of great physical changes having taken place during comparatively much shorter periods of time is in itself a consideration which renders the earth's recent history even more strange than its remoter one.

On the Pleistocene Sea-bed of the Sussex Coast, being the Western Extension of the Raised Sea-beach of Brighton, by Joseph Prestwich, published January 1859 in Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society (vol. 15, issue 1-2, article, p.86)   View Online

Sussex and Suffolk Tertiaries, by Alfred Bell, published January 1869 in Geological Magazine (vol. 6, issue 55, article, p.41)   View Online

The Erosion of the Sussex Coast, with special reference to Great Storms which have visited the County, by F. E. Sawyer, published 1873 in Proceedings of the Brighton and Sussex Natural History Society (article, pp.129-)

The Pleistocene deposits of the Sussex coast, and their equivalents in other districts, by Clement Reid, published January 1892 in Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society (vol. 48, issue 1-4, article, pp.344-364)   View Online
The geological survey of the district lying between the South Downs and the Sussex coast has been completed, but the time needed for finishing and engraving the maps will make it impossible to publish a memoir for several years to come. It seems advisable, therefore, to bring before this Society an outline of the general results obtained, especially as certain of these results may seriously modify our views as to the succession of the deposits, and also as to the climatic changes in late Tertiary times in the South of England. A previous communication, published in this Journal, dealt with the question of the origin of the Coombe Rock and of dry Chalk valleys; I now propose to continue this work by showing the relation of the Coombe Rock to the various Pleistocene strata which occupy the plain lying between the southern edge of the Downs and the sea. I propose also to indicate briefly the probable correlation of these strata with the glacial deposits of other parts of England.

Note on a Section of the Pleistocens Rubble Drift Near Portslade, Sussex, by S. Hazzledine Warren, published July 1897 in Geological Magazine (vol. 4, issue 7, article, pp.302-304)   View Online
The interest of this section lies in its bearing on the theoretical considerations relative to the causes that produced the extensive deposits of Bubble Drift in the South of England.

The Raised Beach and Rubble-Drift at Aldrington, between Hove and Portslade-by-Sea, Sussex. With notes on the microzoa, by Frederick Chapman, A.L.S., F.R.M.S., published 1899 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (no. 16 issue 5, article, pp.259-270)   View Online

Maps of Selsey, in the county of Sussex in the years 1672 and 1901: with notes on coast erosion and some features of the manor, by John Cavis-Brown, published 1906 (pamphlet, Chichester) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 4539] & West Sussex Libraries

Maps of Selsey in the County of Sussex in the Years 1778 and 1901, With the Ancient Field Names, Coast Line in 1906 and other notes , by John Cavis-Brown, published 1908 (Chichester: Charles Knight) accessible at: West Sussex Libraries

Chapter X. The Chalk cliffs of Kent and Sussex, and the tertiary beds of Herne Bay, by George William Young, F.G.S., published 1910 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (vol. 1-20, P2, article, pp.256-269)   View Online

Chapter XI. The tertiary and post-tertiary deposits of the Sussex coast, by J. V. Elsden, B.Sc., F.G.S., published 1910 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (vol. 1-20, P2, article, pp.270-276)   View Online

The Marsupites Chalk of Brighton, by R.M. Brydone, published January 1915 in Geological Magazine (vol. 2, issue 1, article, pp.12-15)   View Online
A description on modern lines of the Brighton chalk below the (old) zone of Actinocamax quadratus is to be found in Dr. Rowe's "Coast Sections", pt. i, p. 346. The principal points that he makes are that between Ovingdean Pumping Station and Black Rock the cliffs display below the (old) zone of A. quadratus a thickness of 58 feet of chalk, the whole of which, he assigns to his zone of Marsupites, and further to his Marsupites band as Uintacrinus was not found in it, but he notes that Uintacrinus has been found on the reefs. These points have, as far as I know, stood unchallenged hitherto, but I am unable to reconcile them with my experience.

Some sedimentary structures from a Weald Clay Sandstone at Warnham Brickworks, Horsham, Sussex, by J. E. Prentice, published 1962 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (no. 73 issue 2, article, pp.171-185)   View Online
Sedimentary structures in a sandstone in the Weald Clay are described. They are groove casts, possibly formed by plant fragments being moved by water, air-heave structures, scour structures, load casts, syndepositional faults and folds, trace fossils and ripple structures. From their study it is concluded that the sandstone was deposited by the sudden inrush of sediment-laden water; and a comparison is suggested with the crevasse sands of modern deltas.

A study of the diatoms of the Ouse Estuary, Sussex I. The movement of the mud-flat diatoms in response to some chemical and physical changes, by J. T. Hopkins, published November 1963 in Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (vol. 43, no. 3, article, p.653, ISSN: 0025-3154)   View Online
The analysis shows that the diatom community resides mainly in the top 2 mm of the mud and when in bright light the community moves less than 1 mm towards the surface of the estuarine mud, although the colour of the mud changes noticeably. The fine mud supports more diatoms than the coarse mud, and the community in fine mud is nearer to the mud surface, but this is probably caused by the more rapid extinction of light in fine mud than in the coarse mud, while also large spaces between the coarse mud particles may offer less protection from the effect of tidal scour than in fine mud, this giving contributory explanation for the less abundant community in coarse mud.

A Study of the Diatoms of the Ouse Estuary, Sussex II. The Ecology of the Mud-Flat Diatom Flora, by J. T. Hopkins, published June 1964 in Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (vol. 44, no. 2, article, p.333, ISSN: 0025-3154)   View Online
By estimating samples of diatoms taken from 0.2 m contour lines, over a horizontal range of about 85 m in the months of July 1953 a nd February 1954 the ecological factors influencing the distribution of eleven species of mud-flat diatoms were investigated. The three important factors were considered to be: the resistance to desiccation near the M.H.W.L., the ability to live under short periods of illumination near to the M.L.W.L., and the ability to tolerate the organic materials present in the black sulphureous layer. Table 7 summarizes the results for the eleven species.

A Study of the Diatoms of the Ouse Estuary, Sussex III. The Seasonal Variation in the Littoral Epiphyte Flora and the Shore Plankton, by J. T. Hopkins, published October 1964 in Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (vol. 44, no. 3, article, p.613, ISSN: 0025-3154)   View Online
Analyses have been made of some of the constituents of the coastal sea water and the river water, and the results have been correlated with the growth phases of some planktonic diatom species and littoral epiphytes, although for most species the sea-water temperature and light intensity were limiting factors. The factor determining the death of an epiphytic diatom community in the littoral zone has been considered to be the air temperature in conjunction with desiccation and a summary of the limiting temperatures for each of the four substrata is given in Table 7. Table 10 is a summary of all the distribution and temperature records. The heat itself is not lethal in many cases but the desiccation of the epiphyte in the littoral zone is accelerated at higher temperatures. Diatoms in damp situations were found to occur at temperatures which in a dry site were limiting, and further work indicating the relationship between relative humidity and lethal temperatures is needed. The ability of a diatom to survive depends upon the water-retaining ability of the substratum. Chalk and large algae favoured the growth of most solitary epiphytes, and filamentous epiphytes grew particularly well on algae except the filamentous Navicula, which were best suited by chalk. The Achnanthes blue-green community was most frequent on wood. Concrete makes a firm substratum and allows rapid growth in winter but it is easily dried and most diatoms on it are destroyed in the summer. Four diatom genera ( Fragilaria, Grammatophora, Biddulphia and Melosira ) are able to exist in the epiphyte flora and the shore plankton and the term facultative epiphyte is suggested to describe the behaviour of at least some of the species of these genera.

Soils of the West Sussex Coastal Plain, by John Michael Hodgson, published 1967 (Bulletin no. 3 of the Soil Survey of Great Britain (England and Wales), viii + 148 pp., Harpenden [Herts.]: Rothamsted Experimental Station) accessible at: British Library & West Sussex Libraries

Coast Erosion and the Port of Pende, by H. C. P. Smail, published May 1969 in Sussex Notes & Queries (vol. XVII no. 3, article, pp.93-99) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 8235] & The Keep [LIB/500219] & S.A.S. library

Pleistocene superficial deposits, Balcombe area, central Weald, by D. J. W. Piper, published November 1971 in Geological Magazine (vol. 108, issue 6, article, pp.517-523)   View Online
Pleistocene silty mudflow deposits mantle much of the valley sides and floors of the Balcombe area of the central Weald. Boulder deposits at the foot of cliffs formed of resistant bedrock sandstones are also of Pleistocene age. One well sorted sand from a gentle valley side shows surface grain textures under the scanning electron microscope indicative of wind action. The superficial deposits formed under periglacial conditions, and their distribution indicates most of the landforms are relict Pleistocene features.

The historical geography of the Wealden Iron Industry, by C. S. Cattell, 1972 at University of London (M.A. thesis)

Iron ore workings near Horsham, Sussex, and the sedimentology of Wealden clay ironstone, by B. C. Worssam, published 1972 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (no. 83 issue 1, article, pp.37-55) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 5347]   View Online
The distribution of old workings, or 'minepits', for clay ironstone in an area between Horsham and Crawley is shown on geological sketch-maps. The geological structure of the area is described in outline. The old workings, except for those in two anomalous patches, are restricted to two argillaceous units in the Upper Tunbridge Wells Sand and to an ironstone horizon some 2 m. below the Horsham Stone in the Weald Clay. Slags from two bloomery sites are described. The amount of ore dug from the minepits is estimated to correspond roughly to the requirements of local blast furnaces, of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century date. Depletion of iron ore reserves is suggested as a factor deciding against resumption of the iron industry in the area after the Civil War.
Bringing into consideration evidence from the whole Wealden area, the origin of clay ironstone is discussed in relation to the environment of deposition of the Wealden Beds. Non-spherulitic ironstone occurs at five main Wealden horizons. In the Weald Clay, ironstone development appears to be related to cycles of sedimentation.

Transport of Sediment in Streams in Sussex, in Relation to Geological and Hydrological Characteristics of Catchments., by M. B. Collins, 1973 at Sussex University (Ph.D. thesis)

Sediment Budget and Source in the Catchment of the River Rother, West Sussex. , by P. A. Wood, 1975 at King's College London (Ph.D. thesis)

Assessment of dune stabilisation at camber, sussex, using air photographs, by Jennifer M. Pizzey, published June 1975 in Biological Conservation (vol. 7, no. 4, article, pp.275-288)   View Online
Using air photographs taken in 1950, 1962, 1967 and 1971 at Camber, Sussex, the progress of sand dune stabilisation was quickly and successfully assessed. Early stabilisation work included the construction of sand traps and the planting of marram ( Ammophila arenaria L.) which was subsequently destroyed by heavy pedestrian and vehicle use. The later application of hydraulically sown seeds, coupled with fencing to regulate pedestrians and trap wind blown sand, proved successful.

Sediment yield studies of headwater catchments in Sussex, S.E. England, by M. B. Collins, published November 1981 in Earth Surface Processes and Landforms (vol. 6, no. 6, article, pp.517-539, ISSN: 01979337)   View Online
The transport of sediment from six small (0.2 to 17.6 km) headwater catchments is described. The catchments under investigation were located in relation to predominant lithological deposits within the Cretaceous rock succession; two of the areas were underlain by (Weald) clay, two by sandstone (Ashdown Sand and Tunbridge Wells Sand) and two by chalk. The climate of the region under investigation is temperate, with an average annual precipitation (850 mm) in excess of potential evapotranspiration (450 mm). The transport of suspended material from within the catchments was examined by collecting samples of the water-sediment mixture draining the areas, using hand held depth-integrating and permanently installed stage sampling systems. The results of the regularly maintained sampling programme, over a two-year period, are described. Attempts were made to both measure and compute bed load transport. Suspended sediment concentrations are compared between catchments and related to hydrological characteristics. The nature of the material in transit is examined. Sediment rating curves are derived for each of the headwater catchments, defining the relationship in the form = (where = suspended sediment concentration (mg/1) and = water discharge (m/s)). Annual rating curves are used to derive annual suspended sediment loads by combination with water discharge data, using a log-incremental computerized approach. Multiple regression techniques have been used to examine annual loads in terms of hydrological and morphological characteristics of the headwater catchments. Based on the field information available, a generalized model for the relationship between suspended sediment concentration and water discharge is described. Finally, the derived annual loads from the headwater catchments are combined with both limited observations from the larger Sussex rivers and data available for other catchment investigations in the British Isles, to produce a series of prediction equations for catchment yield under temperate climatic conditions.

Valley sediments as evidence of prehistoric land-use on the South Downs, by Martin Bell, published January 1983 in The Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society (vol. 49, article, pp.119-150)   View Online
Recent years have seen a shift of archaeological focus away from the confines of the individual site and towards broader issues of land-use and landscape history. Hence a need for archaeological and palaeoenvironmental evidence which tells us about the area utilized from sites rather than about the environment on the site itself. Valley sediments are one possible source of this evidence and this paper considers their potential with specific reference to sediments in chalkland valleys on the South Downs. It also attempts to confront some more specific problems of landscape history. One aim was to assess the extent of erosion and valley sediments within defined study areas and to establish to what extent climatic and land-use factors were responsible for changes in the pattern of sedimentation. It was also hoped that detailed work on land-use sequences would provide a framework for considering long-term settlement trends on the chalk. Why, for instance, do we have dense concentrations of archaeological sites on land which is today somewhat marginal, and how were the valley bottoms utilized in prehistory?

Soil erosion at Albourne, West Sussex, England, by John Boardman, published October 1983 in Applied Geography (vol. 3, no. 4, article, pp.317-329, ISSN: 01436228)   View Online
Few measurements of the rate of soil erosion from agricultural land in Britain have been published. Loamy soils in England may be particularly vulnerable to erosion. Thus, in a field of strawberries near Albourne at least 181 t ha -1 of fine loamy soil was eroded in a 9-month period; this is almost 100 times greater than a suggested 'acceptable' figure. Factors which have induced erosion at Albourne are: the removal of field boundaries; the choice of crop which left the ground bare for a prolonged period ; and the working of the land downslope. Other factors contributing to erosion are the low clay and organic matter content of the soil. The soil slakes and the resultant crust reduces the rate of infiltration of rainfall into the soil and this produces overland flow. Large amounts of rainfall are not necessary to cause erosion. Erosion in the Albourne area is probably a relatively recent phenomenon brought about by changes in land use.

Coastal erosion at Brighton in 1676, by Hilda Rawlings, published March 1984 in Sussex Genealogist and Family Historian (vol. 5 no. 4, article, p.152) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 9173] & The Keep [LIB/501191] & CD SXGS from S.F.H.G.

The London Clay and associated deposits exposed in Chichester Harbour (West Sussex), by David A. Bone, published April 1985 in Tertiary research (vol. 7, part 1, article)

Soil erosion, climatic vagary and agricultural change on the Downs around Lewes and Brighton, autumn 1982, by J. Boardman and D. A. Robinson, published July 1985 in Applied Geography (vol. 5, no. 3, article, pp.243-258, ISSN: 01436228)   View Online
Farmland on the Downs between Lewes and Brighton suffered severe erosion during the autumn of 1982. The erosion was widespread and affected a variety of topographic situations, but it was confined to areas of arable land and recently-sown grass leys. Erosion on the scale recorded during the autumn of 1982 has never previously been recorded from this area. Three major sites of erosion are described and explanations for the erosion are sought through an analysis of rainfall conditions experienced during autumn 1982 and in recent changes in agricultural land use on the Downs. It is concluded that, whilst total rainfall and the intensity of rainstorms were both unusually high, similar events are likely to recur several times a century. Evidence is presented which suggests that the ploughing up of permanent pasture, the removal of field boundaries and the increased adoption of autumn-sown cereals have all contributed to the onset of severe erosion. It appears that a major re-activation of erosion on the Downs may be commencing which threatens the long-term viability of farming in the area.

Soil Erosion: Case Studies on the South Downs, by Alan Stephens, published 1986 (pamphlet, 13 + 7 leaves, Brighton: University of Sussex for the Manpower Services Commission) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 9767] & The Keep [LIB/507993] & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

Prehistoric Sites Threatened by Coastal Erosion between Seaford Head and Beachy Head, East Sussex, by Robin Holgate, published 1986 in Sussex Archæological Collections (vol. 124, archaeological note, pp.243-244) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 9762] & The Keep [LIB/500311] & S.A.S. library

Cliff Erosion in East Sussex, by Jordan Cleeve and Rendell Williams, published 1987 (68 pp., Falmer: Geography Faculty, University of Sussex) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 9858] & East Sussex Libraries

Aspects of the ecology of the micro-invertebrates in the intertidal soft sediments of Chichester harbour, by N. S. Thomas, 1987 at Portsmouth University (Ph.D. thesis)

Coastal sedimentation in East Sussex during the Holocene, by S. Jennings and C. Smyth, published 1987 in Progress in Oceanography (vol. 18, no. 1-4, article, pp.205-241)

Anthropogenic Soil Erosion in Prehistoric Sussex. Excavations at West Heath and Ferring, 1984, by Peter L. Drewett, published 1989 in Sussex Archæological Collections (vol. 127, article, pp.11-30) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 10604] & The Keep [LIB/500302] & S.A.S. library

The Seaford Sea Defence Scheme, by A. E. Holmes, published April 1989 in Water and Environment Journal (vol. 3, issue 2, article, pp.101-108)   View Online
During the last 100 years the shingle beach levels at Seaford have gradually declined, with the result that the 10-m high sea wall, protecting low-lying areas of the town against flooding, came under serious threat of collapse.
Southern Water Authority assumed responsibility for the frontage in 1981, and the paper briefly describes the history of events leading into the problem, model studies, and the solution which was adopted. Details of behaviour of the beach during the months following completion, including the great storm of October 1987, are also given.

Edmond Martin Venables, 1901-1990 A Sussex geologist, by David A. Bone, published 10 June 1991 in Tertiary research (vol. 13, nos. 2-4, article)

A fossil palm at the back door of Hastings Museum, Sussex, England, by W. Alan Charlton, Joan Watson and David J. Batten, published 10 October 1991 in Tertiary research (vol. 13, no. 1, article)

Sediment loads from Sussex headwater streams, by D.T. Crisp, published 1993 in Earth Surface Processes (vol. 6, article, pp.78-96)

The stratigraphy, sedimentology and palaeontology of the Lower Weald Clay (Hauterivian) at Keymer Tileworks, West Sussex, southern England, by Elizabeth Cook and Andrew J. Cook, published 1996 in The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association London (no. 107 issue 3, article, pp.231-239)   View Online
The stratigraphy of the Weald Clay of Sussex in the region of Burgess Hill is summarized. The Hauterivian/Barremian boundary, using ostracod evidence in the Ripe borehole, appears to lie at the top of a red clay bed just below BGS Bed 3c2. Detailed sections of the sediments exposed in Keymer Tileworks clay pit are given. BGS Bed 3a is exposed at the top of the pit, indicating that the sediments below belong to the Lower Weald Clay and are late Hauterivian in age. The pit has yielded a diverse non-marine fossil fauna and flora consisting of insects, dinosaurs, crocodiles, turtles, sharks, bony fish, crustaceans, molluscs, ferns, conifers and a new herbaceous, aquatic or marsh-dwelling plant. The insects include the first Wealden records of the family Sciaridae (fungus gnats) and of the superfamily Coccoidea (scale insects). The sediments exposed and their fossil content indicate changes from terrestrial conditions through fluvial, culminating in a lacustrine environment.

The London Clay Formation (Early Eocene) at Southleigh Landfill Site, near Emsworth, Hampshire (with a note on Lidsey Landfill Site, near Bognor Regis, West Sussex), by David A. Bone, published 30 May 1999 in Tertiary Research (vol. 19, nos. 3-4, article, pp.91-100)

The measurement of the erosion of the chalk shore platform of East Sussex, the effect of coastal defence structures and the efficacy of macro scale bioerosive agents, by Claire Elizabeth Andrews, 2001 at Sussex University (Ph.D. thesis)

The distribution and petrology of sarsens on the eastern South Downs and their relationship to Palaeogene and Neogene sediments and palaeoenvironments, by J. Stewart Ullyott, 2002 at University of Brighton (Ph.D. thesis)

Surface crusting of soils from the South Downs in relation to soil erosion, by Jayashree Khanta, 2002 at Sussex University (Ph.D. thesis)

Sedimentary response of Pagham Harbour, southern England to barrier breaching in AD 1910, by A. B. Cundy, A. J. Long, C. T. Hill, C. Spencer and I. W. Croudace, published August 2002 in Geomorphology (vol. 46 nos, 3-4, article, pp.163-176) accessible at: University of Sussex Library

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments, mussels and crustacea around a former gasworks site in Shoreham-by-Sea, UK, by R. J. Law and others, published September 2002 in Marine pollution bulletin (vol. 44, no. 9, article, pp.903-911)

A temporary exposure of the Thames Group (London Clay Formation and Harwich Formation) at Crossbush, near Arundel, West Sussex, by David A. Bone, published 30 November 2002 in Tertiary Research (vol. 21, nos. 1-4, article)

Effect on estuarine fine-sediment transport of intermittent pump discharge at Pagham Harbour, West Sussex, by S. B. Mitchell, B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D., C.Eng., M.I.C.E., H. M. Burgess, B.Eng., M.Eng. and D. J. Pope, Ph.D., published March 2004 in Water and Environment Journal (vol. 18, issue 1, article, pp.39-43)   View Online
Field investigations were undertaken to identify the mechanisms of fine-sediment transport at a landward limit of Pagham Harbour. Which is a semi-enclosed natural harbour in West Sussex, UK. Measurements of water level, velocity, salinity and turbidity were made during three tidal cycles between June and August 2002. Near-bed measurements revealed that, for spring tides, the most significant transport occurs during the flood tide, with smaller turbidity peaks recorded at times of intermittent pumped discharges at low water. Vertical profiling revealed that the timing of these discharges acts as a control on the landward transport of fine sediment by increasing salinity stratification. The resulting graphs show that, while increased near-bed velocity leads to increased turbidity and sediment transport, the degree of vertical salinity gradient is also linked with landward transport of fine sediment. These results help to explain the role of tides and fresh-water flow in controlling the transport of fine sediment in natural harbours, emphasising the importance of taking stratification into account when using 2-D depth-averaged predictive numerical models.

Stratification and fine sediment transport mechanisms in a semi-enclosed tidal lagoon (PaghamHarbour, West Sussex), by S. B. Mitchell, H. M. Burgess and D. J. Pope, published December 2006 in Water and Environment Journal (vol. 20, issue 4, article, pp.248-255)   View Online
Preliminary analysis of data collected at a macrotidal semi-enclosed lagoon (Pagham Harbour, UK) has revealed useful information about long-term patterns of siltation and some of the related mechanisms. Sediment surface-level measurements made over 2 years at different sites within Pagham Harbour have shown a steady siltation, in common with earlier measurements, which is moderated by seasonal effects due to erosion by locally generated waves. Furthermore, inspection of vertical profiles of salinity and turbidity over individual tidal cycles has revealed that the degree of sediment transport on the flood tide is related to the vertical salinity gradient. Thus, at the Ferry Pool site, which is characterised by episodic pumped discharges from a nearby sewage treatment plant, landward sediment transport is enhanced by the high degree of salinity stratification observed during the flood tide. The mobility of the sediment, and the greater distribution of softer, less well-consolidated sediment deposits, is greater here than at the other significant freshwater inflow at the Salthouse site, where the fresh water flow is instead moderated by a tidal flap gate. Preliminary analyses suggest that the higher the salinity stratification, the greater the landward sediment transport during the flood tide. Such analyses could help inform future policy on the methods of land drainage to macrotidal lagoons, and on the potential for managed realignment at such sites.

The hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics of the Sussex Ouse Estuary, UK, by Richard Otway Charman, 2007 at Sussex University (Ph.D thesis)

Exploring soil erosion and biodiversity in multifunctional landscapes: A case study of the South Downs, UK, by Sarah Marie Bateman, 2009 at Nottingham University (Ph.D. thesis)