Bibliography - Environment and natural history: Organisms, study of (ecology)
Bibliography Home


A brief Notice of Organic Remains recently discovered in the Wealden Formation, by Gideon Algernon Mantell, published January 1849 in Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society (vol. 5, issue 1-2, article, pp.37-43)   View Online
As our knowledge of the zoology and botany of the islands and continents that nourished during the formation of the secondary strata, can only he extended by a diligent examination of the organic remains that may be discovered from time to time, it appears to me desirable occasionally to record, however briefly, the additions made to the fossil fauna and flora of the Wealden, in the hope of ultimately acquiring data that will afford a satisfactory elucidation of that remarkable geological epoch, "The Age of Reptiles;" - in which the vertebrated animals that inhabited the land, the air, and the waters, were, with the exception of fishes, almost exclusively of the reptilian type of organization. I therefore submit to the Society the following concise account of the Wealden fossils that have either come under my immediate notice, or of which I have received information from my correspondents, since my last communication on this subject.
Flora of the Wealden. - The additions to the Wealden flora from my own researches consist only of a few more instructive examples of Clathraria and Endogenites than any previously obtained. Specimens of the stem of Clathraria Lyellii, bearing the characteristic cicatrices formed by the attachment and subsequent separation of the petioles or leaf-stalks, have been found at Hastings, at Brook Point in the Isle of Wight, and in the Ridgway cutting near Weymouth. A water-worn fragment of a stem of Clathraria, which I picked up on the sea-shore at Brook Bay, was so much indurated as to render it

On Supposed Casts of Footprints in the Wealden, by S. H. Beckles, published January 1851 in Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society (vol. 7, issue 1-2, article, p.117)   View Online
Certain large trifid bodies, presenting a resemblance to the casts of the impressions of birds' feet, are rather numerous in the cliffs to the east and west of Hastings (from the latter locality Mr. Beckles has obtained eight specimens), in a limestone containing Cyrencæ, remains of Lepidotus, &c., and Dr. Mantell has discovered a specimen in the Wealden of the Isle of Wight.

On the Ornithoidichnites of the Wealden, by S. H. Beckles, published January 1852 in Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society (vol. 8, issue 1-2, article, pp.396-397)   View Online
Since the publication in January 1851 of the notice of the peculiar trifid bodies occurring in the Hastings rock, the author has added several specimens to his collection, some of which appear to afford additional evidence in favour of the opinion of their being natural casts of the prints of birds' feet.

On the ecology of British beechwoods with special reference to their regeneration: part II, sections II and III. The development and structure of beech communities on the Sussex Downs, by A.S. Watt, published 1925 in Journal of Ecology (vol. 13, no. 1, article, pp.27-73)

Littoral diatoms of Chichester Harbour with special reference to fouling, by N. Ingram Hendey, published 1951 in Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society (vol. 71, no. 1, article, pp.1-86)

Salt Marshes of the Hampshire-Sussex Border, by Christopher Perraton, published August 1953 in Journal of Ecology (vol. 41, no. 2, article, pp.240-247) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 5351]

Flora of Pagham Harbour. A study in plant ecology, with plates, including maps, by Dorothy French, published 1962 (16 pp., Bognor Regis Natural Science Society) accessible at: British Library

A study of the diatoms of the Ouse Estuary, Sussex I. The movement of the mud-flat diatoms in response to some chemical and physical changes, by J. T. Hopkins, published November 1963 in Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (vol. 43, no. 3, article, p.653, ISSN: 0025-3154)   View Online
The analysis shows that the diatom community resides mainly in the top 2 mm of the mud and when in bright light the community moves less than 1 mm towards the surface of the estuarine mud, although the colour of the mud changes noticeably. The fine mud supports more diatoms than the coarse mud, and the community in fine mud is nearer to the mud surface, but this is probably caused by the more rapid extinction of light in fine mud than in the coarse mud, while also large spaces between the coarse mud particles may offer less protection from the effect of tidal scour than in fine mud, this giving contributory explanation for the less abundant community in coarse mud.

The ecology of Chichester Harbour, S. England, with special reference to some fouling species, by H.G. Stubbings and D.E. Houghton, published 1964 in International Review of Hydrobiology (vol. 49, no. 2, article, pp.233-279)

A Study of the Diatoms of the Ouse Estuary, Sussex II. The Ecology of the Mud-Flat Diatom Flora, by J. T. Hopkins, published June 1964 in Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (vol. 44, no. 2, article, p.333, ISSN: 0025-3154)   View Online
By estimating samples of diatoms taken from 0.2 m contour lines, over a horizontal range of about 85 m in the months of July 1953 a nd February 1954 the ecological factors influencing the distribution of eleven species of mud-flat diatoms were investigated. The three important factors were considered to be: the resistance to desiccation near the M.H.W.L., the ability to live under short periods of illumination near to the M.L.W.L., and the ability to tolerate the organic materials present in the black sulphureous layer. Table 7 summarizes the results for the eleven species.

A Study of the Diatoms of the Ouse Estuary, Sussex III. The Seasonal Variation in the Littoral Epiphyte Flora and the Shore Plankton, by J. T. Hopkins, published October 1964 in Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (vol. 44, no. 3, article, p.613, ISSN: 0025-3154)   View Online
Analyses have been made of some of the constituents of the coastal sea water and the river water, and the results have been correlated with the growth phases of some planktonic diatom species and littoral epiphytes, although for most species the sea-water temperature and light intensity were limiting factors. The factor determining the death of an epiphytic diatom community in the littoral zone has been considered to be the air temperature in conjunction with desiccation and a summary of the limiting temperatures for each of the four substrata is given in Table 7. Table 10 is a summary of all the distribution and temperature records. The heat itself is not lethal in many cases but the desiccation of the epiphyte in the littoral zone is accelerated at higher temperatures. Diatoms in damp situations were found to occur at temperatures which in a dry site were limiting, and further work indicating the relationship between relative humidity and lethal temperatures is needed. The ability of a diatom to survive depends upon the water-retaining ability of the substratum. Chalk and large algae favoured the growth of most solitary epiphytes, and filamentous epiphytes grew particularly well on algae except the filamentous Navicula, which were best suited by chalk. The Achnanthes blue-green community was most frequent on wood. Concrete makes a firm substratum and allows rapid growth in winter but it is easily dried and most diatoms on it are destroyed in the summer. Four diatom genera ( Fragilaria, Grammatophora, Biddulphia and Melosira ) are able to exist in the epiphyte flora and the shore plankton and the term facultative epiphyte is suggested to describe the behaviour of at least some of the species of these genera.

Autoecology and population biology of Plantago coronopus L. at coastal sites in Sussex. , by S. Waite, 1980 at Sussex University (Ph.D. thesis)

Aspects of the impact of man on the historical ecology of Ashdown Forest, Sussex before 1885, by J. K. Irons, 1982 at Sussex University (Ph.D. thesis)

The Soils and Vegetation History of Sussex, by D. A. Robinson and R. B. G. Williams, published 1 September 1983 in Sussex Environment Landscape and Society (chapter 6, pp.109-126, Stroud: Sutton Publishing Ltd., ISBN-10: 0862990459 & ISBN-13: 9780862990459) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 8831] & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

Biogeography, Ecology and Conservation in Sussex, by David Streeter, published 1 September 1983 in Sussex Environment Landscape and Society (chapter 7, pp.127-147, Stroud: Sutton Publishing Ltd., ISBN-10: 0862990459 & ISBN-13: 9780862990459) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 8831] & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

Soil Erosion: Case Studies on the South Downs, by Alan Stephens, published 1986 (pamphlet, 13 + 7 leaves, Brighton: University of Sussex for the Manpower Services Commission) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 9767] & The Keep [LIB/507993] & West Sussex Libraries & East Sussex Libraries

Cliff Erosion in East Sussex, by Jordan Cleeve and Rendell Williams, published 1987 (68 pp., Falmer: Geography Faculty, University of Sussex) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 9858] & East Sussex Libraries

Aspects of the ecology of the micro-invertebrates in the intertidal soft sediments of Chichester harbour, by N. S. Thomas, 1987 at Portsmouth University (Ph.D. thesis)

A lagoon survey of the Portsmouth area: Portsmouth to Selsey, by M. Sheader, published 1988 (Nature Conservancy Council, Information and Library Services) accessible at: British Library & West Sussex Libraries

Sand dune survey of Great Britain : site report no. 79; Pagham Beach Dune, West Sussex, by C. L. Holder, published 1990 (Nature Conservancy Council) accessible at: British Library

The Battle of Goldrings Warren, by Countryman, published July 1990 in Midhurst Magazine (Volume 2 Number 4, article, pp.26-31, Summer 1990) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 15967]
Account of the successful campaign to save Goldrings Warren, a stretch of wild healthland near Iping, from the threat of quarrying for sand for brick making. The 'battle' was 'won' in February 1969.

Hares and skylarks as indicators of environmentally sensitive farming on the South Downs, by Andrew Wakeham-Dawson, 1994 at Open University (Ph.D. thesis)

Benthic microcrustacean communities in four streams of the Ashdown Forest, south-east England, by A.L. Robertson, published 1995 in London Naturalist (vol. 74, article, pp.113-126)

The Prehistoric land-use and human ecology of the Malling-Caburn Downs. two Late Neolithic/early Bronze Age sites beneath Colluvial Sequences, by Michael J. Allen, published 1995 in Sussex Archæological Collections (vol. 133, article, pp.19-44) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 13209] & The Keep [LIB/500288] & S.A.S. library

Doris Ashby Remembered, published July 1995 in Midhurst Magazine (Volume 7 Number 4, article, pp.16-19, Summer 1995) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 15968]
Memories by local people of the naturalist and photographer, Doris Ashby.

Ecological destruction in the 16th century: the case of St Leonard's Forest, by Sybil Jack, published 1997 in Sussex Archæological Collections (vol. 135, article, pp.241-248) accessible at: W.S.R.O. [Lib 13642] & The Keep [LIB/500290] & S.A.S. library

Aspects of habitat selection in the sedge warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus in Sussex., by Fotini Papazoglou, 1997 at Sussex University (Ph.D. thesis)

Respondents' Evaluations of a CV Survey: A Case Study Based on an Economic Valuation of the Wildlife Enhancement Scheme, Pevensey Levels in East Sussex, by Jacquelin Burgess, Judy Clark and Carolyn M. Harrison, published March 1998 in Area (vol. 30, no. 1, article, pp.19-27)

Intra-annual variability and patchiness in living assemblages of salt-marsh foraminifera from Mill Rythe Creek, Chichester Harbour, England, by Jane E. Swallow, published 2000 in Journal of Micropalaeontology (vol. 19, no. 1, article, pp.9-22)

Ecological management of the Sussex South Downs: applications of GIS and landscape ecology. , by Niall George Burnside, 2000 at University of Brighton (Ph.D. thesis)
The South Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty is a nationally important conservation area, which contains a significant proportion (28%) of the South East calcareous grassland resource. The traditional calcareous grassland habitats characteristic of the Downland landscape have suffered significant losses since the Second World War, and the remaining sites are small, fragmented and confined to the more marginal areas, often the steeper slopes. The recreation and regeneration of these species-rich grasslands has become an important aim of regional conservation organisations, but the methods and mechanisms by which restoration sites could be identified has not been clarified. The work reported here aims, by the integration of landscape ecology and Geographical Information Systems, to develop a sound methodological approach for the targeting of sites for restoration and regeneration of calcareous grassland on the South Downs. The study examines temporal land use dynamics of the Downland and the predominant land conversion sequences are identified. Land management changes between 1971 and 1991 are assessed, and sites of unimproved grassland and those sites considered more marginal to modem intensive farming approaches are identified. The structure of the Downs landscape is investigated at the landscape, habitat and community level using fine-scale spatial data. Particular emphasis is placed upon the remaining calcareous resource and the extent of habitat loss and fragmentation is quantified. Analysis at the community level shows a clear relationship between community richness and habitat area. The analysis identifies key attributes of calcareous grassland sites and provides a baseline from which to formulate restoration targets and objectives. Finally, using fuzzy logic, a GIS-based Habitat Suitability Model is developed for use as a tool to support strategic landscape evaluation and to provide a method of identifying areas of search and site selection for targeted restoration. The approach models the relationships between specific grassland communities and landscape position, and is applied to the South Downs landscape in order to predict the nature of grassland communities likely to result from restoration efforts at specific sites.

The measurement of the erosion of the chalk shore platform of East Sussex, the effect of coastal defence structures and the efficacy of macro scale bioerosive agents, by Claire Elizabeth Andrews, 2001 at Sussex University (Ph.D. thesis)

Surface crusting of soils from the South Downs in relation to soil erosion, by Jayashree Khanta, 2002 at Sussex University (Ph.D. thesis)

The ecological impacts of wild boar rooting in East Sussex, by Natasha K. E. Sims, 2006 at Sussex University (Ph.D. thesis)

The Historical Ecology of the River Arun and Its Beaches at Littlehampton, West Sussex: v. 169: 1000 Years of Change, by Brian Morton, published 29 February 2008 (iv + 198 pp., Oxfordshire: Ray Society, Bloxham, ISBN-10: 0903874407 & ISBN-13: 9780903874403) accessible at: British Library & West Sussex Libraries

Exploring soil erosion and biodiversity in multifunctional landscapes: A case study of the South Downs, UK, by Sarah Marie Bateman, 2009 at Nottingham University (Ph.D. thesis)

The River Adur and the Knepp Estate, by Richard Symonds, published March 2012 (18 pp., [Horsham ?]: Horsham District Archaeology Group)   Download PDF
As preparatory work to rewilding Adurwithin the Knepp Castle Estate, West Grinstead, by reinstating old meanders, consists of a history of that stretch of river